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Hazrat Khwaja Ghulam Fareed URS celebration beginning .  -  Three-days Ceremonies Of URS Of The Famous Saint And Sufi Poet Of the South Punjab Hazrat Khwaja Ghulam Fareed will be Starting  From 6th February.KFF is The Host Of The Celebration Ceremony.  Diwan-e- Fareed new research, which the Author is Mr. Mujahid Jatoi are celebration ceremony will be held on February 7th in Qaser-e-Fareed. KFF is the  host of the celebration ceremony. The Delegation Of Khwaja Farid College Rahim Yar Khan, Visit The Kot Mithan. A Delegation Of The Professors And Lecturers In The Leadership Of Mr. Chaudhry Mohammad Akram Principal Khwaja Fareed College Rahim Yar Khan Visited The Kot Mithan. After Darbar –e-Fareed Thay Also Visit The Khawaja Fareed Museum And Then They Attended a Ceremony Arranged by KFF, in Qaser-e-Fareed.  

What is River.

Any natural stream of water that flows in a channel with defined banks . Modern usage includes rivers that are multichanneled, intermittent, or ephemeral ...

Detail Of Pakistan Rivers,

Flowing into the Arabian Sea (flowing only in rainy season during smaller part of year may or may not reach sea)

Dasht River

The Dasht River (Urdu: دریائے دشت‎) is located in the Gwadar District, Balochistan, Pakistan.[1] The Kech River is a seasonally-flowing right-bank tributary of river Dasht that flows in from Iran. The Mirani Dam is located on the River Dasht. This dam was built to irrigate the surrounding areas, flood control in the region and to provide drinking water to the city of Gwadar.[2]


  1. ^ Rivers Network: Dasht River Basin.
  2. ^ Designing Mirani Dam for local needs By Sikander Brohi |

Kech River

The Kech River is a tributary of the Dasht River which flows from Iran into Balochistan, Pakistan. The city of Turbat is located along this river and is used to irrigate the orchards and in vegetable farming.[1]However the area is prone to

flooding - in June 2007 the flood waters entered Turbat city after the river burst it banks, thousands were affected.[2]


  1. ^ A town called Tomb - Daily Times
  2. ^ 250,000 in distress: Turbat situation critical Mirani Dam in danger - Dawn Pakistan

Basol River

Basol River is located in Gwadar District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Basol river drains into Khor Kalmat lagoon. The geographical coordinated of Khor Kalmat are N 25° 24' 32 E 64° 4' 37.

Hingol River

Hingol River or Hungol River (Urdu: دریائے ہنگول‎) is located in Makran, Balochistan, Pakistan.

The river is 350 miles long and is the longest in Balochistan.[1]It winds through the Hungol valley between high cliffs.[1]

The river flows all year long, unlike most other streams in Balochistan which only flow during rare rains.[1]

The river and valley are located in Hingol National Park.[1]


^ a b c d "Hingol National Park". Pakistan Paedia: National Parks. JalalsPages. 12 September 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-15.

Porali River

 (Porali Nai) / Balochistan

25°58'0" N


66°25'60" E


~25m asl


00:46 (PKT - UTC/GMT+5)

Porali River (Porali River) is a stream (class H - Hydrographic) in Balochistan, Pakistan (Asia) with the region font code of Asia/Pacific. It is located at an elevation of 25 meters above sea level.
Porali River is also known as Porali, Porali Nai, Porali River, Poralli Nai River, Porāli, Porāli Nai, Pur Ali River, Purali.

Its coordinates are 25°58'0" N and 66°25'60" E in DMS (Degrees Minutes Seconds) or 25.9667 and 66.4333 (in decimal degrees). Its UTM position is TP47 and its Joint Operation Graphics reference is NG42-09.

Current local time is 00:46; the sun rises at 08:56 and sets at 21:03 local time (Asia/Karachi UTC/GMT+5). The standard time zone for Porali River is UTC/GMT+5
In 2013 DST starts on - and ends on -.

A Stream is a body of running water moving to a lower level in a channel on land.


Weather Graph


Hub River

Hub River (Urdu: دریائے حب‎) is located in Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan.

Orangi Nala

Orangi Nala (Urdu: اورنگی نالہ‎) is a small ephemeral stream that flows through the Pakistani megacity of Karachi from north east to the center and flows into the Arabian Sea.

Malir River

Malir River (Urdu: ملير ندی‎) is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Malir River passes through the city of Karachi from North East to the Centre and drains into the Arabian Sea. Malir river is one of the two rivers passing through Karachi and the other is Lyari River. It has two main tributaries, the Thadho and the Sukhan.

In the rainy season, this river experiences heavy water flow, with millions of gallons emptying into the Arabian Sea.

Lyari River

Country Pakistan
State Sindh
City Karachi
Source Rain catchment area
 - location Karachi
 - elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Length 50 km (30 mi) approx.

Lyari River (Urdu: دریائے لیاری ‎) is a small ephemeral stream that flows through the Pakistani megacity of Karachi from north east to the center and drains into theArabian Sea at the Monora channel. It is one of the two rivers of Karachi, the other one being Malir River. The river is about 50 kilometres (30 miles) long. As a seasonal river it carrys the collected water after the rains in the catchment area.[1]


Until 1950s, the river held clean water and fish, with farming activities on its banks.[2] However, after the independence of Pakistan from British colonialism in 1947, when Karachi was announced as the capital cityof the new country, a large influx of refugees from various Indian states as well as from other provinces of Pakistan came to live in the city. With rapid growth of the city's economy, industry, and population, the river's ecology was transformed and it gradually continued to discharge waste water, sewage and industrial effluents.

Redevelopments along the river

With many squatter settlements groomed in the river's surroundings, the occasional floods started causing human and property loss. Especially, after the havoc caused by the torrential rains in 1977, need was realised to build flood barriers along the river. In 1986, a proposal was made to build an expressway through the city that would run along the riverbanks of Lyari. The plan was abandoned because an estimated 100,000 people would have to be relocated.[3] However, the flood incidents continued in 1990s.

Lyari Expressway

Lyari Expressway - Route Map

The project comprises a 16.5 kilometre (10¼ mile) stretch of elevated expressway running along both sides of the river, cutting through the city to Karachi Port, as an extension/alternative to the Northern Bypass. The work commenced in 2002 without any public consensus, as a result of which large numbers of houses and schools were demolished on the reasons of Informal settlements. The measures were strongly opposed by affected population, community groups, civil societyorganizations and NGOs on the grounds that at least 200,000 families would have to be displaced from the development sites in addition to the economic and environmental costs.[4] A number of cost effective alternatives were also proposed by local activists and organizations.[5] However, the project continued with the additions of Lyari Expressway Resettlement Project as a relocation plan to move the affected families to the purpose-built areas in Hawk's Bay and Taiser Town, in the city's suburbs.

Other developments and extensions[edit source | editbeta]

Apart from the eviction and resettlement of Lyari Expressway, redevelopment plans have also been carried out under the Lyari River Development Scheme[6] in other towns along the river such as Gulberg, North Nazimabad, Saddar, Jamshed, Gulshan-e-Iqbal and Liaquatabad.[7]


The river is the main contributor to an estimated amount of 200 million Imperial gallons (909.218 million litres)[8] of raw sewage that enters the Arabian Sea.[9] The only non-saline input is the local run-off from rainfall. A large number of industries including leather tanning units, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, refineries, chemical, textile, paper and pulp, engineering works and thermal power stations, located along the river, regularly discharge their untreated industrial waste.[10] With the growing amount of organic nutrients in the river water, the marine ecology along the coastal shelf has been alarmingly affected. The spillage due to tidal action also continues to affect the mangroves along the Karachi coast.[11] The pollutants along with other environmental perturbations have also proved to be harmful to the biodiversity of marinespecies along Karachi Fish Harbour[12] including green turtle, seabirds and marine mammals.[13]


  1. ^ S Nazneen and F Begum (1988) Hydrological studies of Lyari River. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 26-29.
  2. ^ R Asif (2002), Lyari Expressway: woes of displaced families. Dawn (newspaper). 8 August. Retrieved on 10 January, 2008
  3. ^ Z Mustafa (2006), "Lyari Expressway: Boon or Bane", Dawn (newspaper). 8 March 2006. Retrieved on 10 January, 2008
  4. ^ A Hasan (2005), The political and institutional blockages to good governance: The case of the Lyari expressway in Karachi, Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp.127-141
  5. ^ A Hasan (2002), Lyari Expressway: Concerns and Proposals of the Urban Resource Centre, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi.
  6. ^ D E Dowall (1991), The Karachi Development Authority: Failing to Get the Prices Right. Land Economics, Vol. 67, No. 4, pp. 462-471
  7. ^ Lyari Expressway in Pakistan: Violence and Evictions. Urban Resource Centre.
  8. ^ N Burt (1997), Environmental Assessment and Protection of Karachi Harbour
  9. ^ B U Haq, G Kullenberg, and J H Stel (eds.) (1997), Coastal Zone Management Imperative for Maritime Developing Nations (Coastal Systems and Continental Margins). Springer. ISBN 978-0-7923-4765-1
  10. ^ J E Hardoy, D Mitlin, D Satterthwaite (1993), The Environmental Problems of Third World Cities. Earthscan. ISBN 978-1-85383-146-1
  11. ^ M Beg, N Mahmood, S Naeem, and A Yousufzai (1984) Land-based pollution and the marine environment of Karachi coast. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. Vol. 27, No. 4, pp.199-205.
  12. ^ S Saifullah and M Moazzam (1978) Species Composition and Seasonal Occurrence of Centric Diatoms in a Polluted Marine Environment. Pakistan Journal of Botany Vol 10, No 1, p 53-64, June.
  13. ^ A Hasan and S I Ahmad (2006), Some Observations on Birds and Marine Mammals of Karachi Coast. Zoological Survey of Pakistan, 17. pp. 15-20

Gujjar Nala

Gujjar Nala or Gujjar Stream (Urdu: گجر نالہ‎) is a small ephemeral stream that flows through the Pakistani megacity of Karachi from north east to the center and merges with Lyari River before draining into theArabian Sea.

                                                                                                          Indus River Basin 

Indus River
Satellite image of the Indus River basin in Pakistan, India, and China.
Country Pakistan (93%)
India (5%)
China (2%)
 - left Zanskar River,Chenab River, Sutlej River,Soan River
 - right Shyok River, Gilgit River,Kabul River, Kurram River,Gomal River
Cities Leh, Sukkur, Hyderabad
Primary source Sênggê Zangbo
 - location Tibetan Plateau
Secondary source Gar
 - location Tibetan Plateau
Mouth Arabian Sea
 - location Indus River Delta,Pakistan
 - elevation 0 m (0 ft)
 - coordinates 23°59′40″N 67°25′51″E
Length 3,200 km (1,988 mi)
Basin 1,165,000 km2(449,809 sq mi)
Discharge for Arabian sea
 - average 6,600 m3/s(233,077 cu ft/s)
Map of the Indus River basin
The Thal Canal, seen from the Indus river at Mianwali, in Punjab.


Indus River, Tibetan and Sanskrit Sindhu, Sindhi Sindhu, orMehran,  great trans-Himalayan river of South Asia. It is one of the longest rivers in the world, with a length of some 1,800 miles (2,900 km). Its total drainage area is about 450,000 square miles (1,165,000 square km), of which 175,000 square miles (453,000 square km) lie in the Himalayan ranges and foothills and the rest in the semiarid plains of Pakistan. The river’s annual flow is about 272 billion cubic yards (207 billion cubic metres)—twice that of the Nile River and three times that of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers combined. The river’s conventional name derives from the Tibetan and Sanskrit name Sindhu. The earliest chronicles and hymns of the Aryan peoples of ancient India, the Rigveda, composed about 1500 bce, mention the river, which is the source of the country’s name.

Indus River

"Indus" and "Sindhu" redirect here. For other uses, see Indus (disambiguation) and Sindhu (disambiguation).

The Indus River is a major river in Asia which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through western Tibet and northern India. Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, towards Gilgit and Baltistan and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. The total length of the river is 3,180 km (1,980 mi). It is Pakistan's longest river.

The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi). Its estimated annual flow stands at around 207 km3 (50 cu mi), making it the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. The Zanskar is its left bank tributary in Ladakh. In the plains, its left bank tributary is the Chenab which itself has four major tributaries, namely, the Jhelum, the Ravi, the Beas and the Sutlej. Its principal right bank tributaries are the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Kabul, the Gomaland the Kurram. Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayas, the river supports ecosystems of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside.

The Indus forms the delta of Pakistan and India mentioned in the Vedic Rigveda as Sapta Sindhu and the Iranian Zend Avesta as Hapta Hindu (both terms meaning "seven rivers"). The river has been a source of wonder since the Classical Period, with King Darius of Persia sending Scylax of Caryanda to explore the river as early as 510 BC.

Names and etymology

The Sanskrit word Sindhu means river, stream or ocean, probably from a root sidh meaning "to keep off". Sindhu is still the local appellation for the Indus River.

In the Rigveda, "Sindhu" (Sanskrit: सिन्धु) is the name of the Indus river. Sindhu is attested 176 times in the Rigveda, 95 times in the plural, more often used in the generic meaning. In the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, as in the list of rivers of the Nadistuti sukta. This resulted in the anomaly of a river with masculine gender: all other Rigvedic rivers are female. This is not just a grammatical designation: the other rivers were imagined as goddesses and compared to cows and mares yielding milk and butter.

The word Sindhu became Hinduš in Old Persian. The Ancient Greek Ἰνδός (Indós, borrowed in turn into Latin as Indus) is a borrowing of the Old Iranian word.[1]The name Indós is used in Megasthenes's book Indica for the mighty river crossed by Alexander based on Nearchus's contemporaneous account.

The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians (present-day India beyond the Indus River) as Ἰνδοί (Indói), the people of the Indus.[1][2]

In Urdu, the official language of Pakistan, the Indus is known as درياۓ سِندھ (Daryā-e Sindh). In other languages of the region, the river is known as सिन्धु नदी(Sindhu Nadī) in Hindi, سنڌو (Sindhu) in Sindhi, سندھ (Sindh) in Punjabi, સિંધુ નદી (Sindhu) in Gujarati; اباسين (Abāsin, lit. "Father of Rivers") in Pashto, رود سند (Rūd-e Sind) in Persian, نهر السند (Naḥar al-Sind) in Arabic, སེང་གེ།་གཙང་པོ (Sênggê Zangbo, lit. "Lion River") in Tibetan, and Nilab in Turki.


Babur crossing the Indus River.

The Indus River provides key water resources for the economy of Pakistan - especially the Breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. The word Punjab means "water of five rivers" and the five rivers are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, all of which finally merge in Indus. The Indus also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan.

The ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet; it begins at the confluence of the Sengge and Gar rivers that drain the Nganglong Kangri and Gangdise Shan mountain ranges. The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh and Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range. The Shyok, Shigar and Gilgit rivers carry glacial waters into the main river. It gradually bends to the south, coming out of the hills between Peshawar and Rawalpindi. The Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500–5,200 metres (15,000–17,000 feet) deep near the Nanga Parbat massif. It flows swiftly across Hazara and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir. TheKabul River joins it near Attock. The remainder of its route to the sea is in the plains of the Punjab and Sindh, where the flow of the river becomes slow and highly braided. It is joined by the Panjnad at Mithankot. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named the Satnad River (sat = "seven", nadī = "river"), as the river was now carrying the waters of the Kabul River, the Indus River and the five Punjab rivers. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the east of Thatta.

The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world to exhibit a tidal bore. The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Himalayas, Karakoram and theHindu Kush ranges of Tibet, the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and the Northern Areas of Pakistan respectively. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons - it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times - it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch and adjoining Banni grasslands after the 1816 earthquake.[3][4]

The traditional source of the river is the Senge Khabab or "Lion's Mouth", a perennial spring, not far from the sacred Mount Kailash, and is marked by a long low line of Tibetan chortens. There are several other tributaries nearby which may possibly form a longer stream than Senge Khabab, but unlike the Senger Khabab, are all dependent on snowmelt. The Zanskar River which flows into the Indus in Ladakh has a greater volume of water than the Indus itself before that point.[5]

"That night in the tent [next to Senge Khabab] I ask Sonmatering which of the Indus tributaries which we crossed this morning is the longest. All of them, he says, start at least a day's walk away from here. The Bukhar begins near the village of Yagra. The Lamolasay's source is in a holy place: there is a monastery there. The Dorjungla is a very difficult and long walk, three days perhaps, and there are many sharp rocks; but it its water is clear and blue, hence the tributary's other name, Zom-chu, which Karma Lama translates as 'Blue Water'. The Rakmajang rises from a dark lake called the Black Sea.
One of the longest tributaries — and thus a candidate for the river's technical source — is the Kla-chu, the river we crossed yesterday by bridge. Also known as the Lungdep Chu, it flows into the Indus from the south-east, and rises a day's walk from Darchen. But Sonamtering insists that the Dorjungla is the longest of the 'three types of water' that fall into the Seng Tsanplo ['Lion River' or Indus]."[5]


Indus Valley archaeological sites
Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization3000 BC

Paleolithic sites have been discovered in Pothohar near Pakistan's capital Islamabad, with the stone tools of the Soan Culture. In ancientGandhara, near Islamabad, evidence of cave dwellers dated 15,000 years ago has been discovered at Mardan.[citation needed]

The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. The Indus Valley Civilization extended from across Pakistan and northwest India, with an upward reach from east of Jhelum River to Ropar on the upper Sutlej. The coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor at the Pakistan, Iran border to Kutch in modern Gujarat, India. There is an Indus site on the Amu Darya at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, and the Indus site Alamgirpur at the Hindon River is located only 28 km (17 mi) from Delhi. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi. Only 90-96 of the over-800 known Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries. The Sutlej, now a tributary of the Indus, in Harappan times flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra River, in the watershed of which were more Harappan sites than along the Indus.

Most scholars believe that settlements of Gandhara grave culture of the early Indo-Aryans flourished in Gandhara from 1700 BC to 600 BC, when Mohenjo-daro and Harappa had already been abandoned.

The word "India" is derived from the Indus River. In ancient times, "India" initially referred to those regions immediately along the east bank of the Indus, but by 300 BC, Greek writers including Megasthenes were applying the term to the entire subcontinent that extends much farther eastward.[6]

The lower basin of the Indus forms a natural boundary between the Iranian Plateau and the Indian subcontinent; this region embraces all or parts of the Pakistani provincesBalochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh and the countries Afghanistan and India. It was crossed by the invading armies of Alexander, but after his Macedoniansconquered the west bank—joining it to the Hellenic Empire, they elected to retreat along the southern course of the river, ending Alexander's Asian campaign . The Indus plains were later dominated by the Persian empire and then the Kushan empire. Over several centuries Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mohammed Ghori,Tamerlane and Babur crossed the river to invade the inner regions of the Punjab and points farther south and east.




Confluence of Indus and Zanskar rivers. The Indus is lower in elevation, flowing right-to-left.

The Indus river feeds the Indus submarine fan, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth at around 5 million cubic kilometres of material eroded from the mountains. Studies of the sediment in the modern river indicate that the Karakoram Mountains in northern Pakistan and India are the single most important source of material, with the Himalayas providing the next largest contribution, mostly via the large rivers of the Punjab (Jhelum, Ravi, Chenab, Beas and Sutlej). Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganges and were captured after that time.[7] Earlier work showed that sand and silt from western Tibet was reaching the Arabian Sea by 45 million years ago, implying the existence of an ancient Indus River by that time.[8] The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan-Pakistan border.

In the Nanga Parbat region, the massive amounts of erosion due to the Indus river following the capture and rerouting through that area is thought to bring middle and lower crustal rocks to the surface.[9]


Footbridge on the Indus River in Pakistan
Fishermen on the Indus River, c. 1905

Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. The Mughal Emperor Babur writes of encountering rhinoceroses along its bank in his memoirs (the Baburnama). Extensive deforestation and human interference in the ecology of theShivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. The Indus valley regions are arid with poor vegetation. Agriculture is sustained largely due to irrigation works. Indus river and its watershed has a rich biodiversity. It is home to around 25 amphibian species and 147 species, 22 of which are only found in the Indus.[10]


The blind Indus River Dolphin (Platanista indicus minor) is a sub-species of dolphin found only in the Indus River. It formerly also occurred in the tributaries of the Indus river. According to the World Wildlife Fund claims it is one of the most threatened cetaceans with only about 1000 still existing.[11]


Palla fish Tenualosa ilisha of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. The population of fishes in the river is moderately high, with Sukkur, Thatta and Kotribeing the major fishing centres - all in the lower Sindh course. But damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity. Located southeast of Karachi, the large delta has been recognised by conservationists as one of the world's most important ecological regions. Here the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. Here marine fishes are found in abundance, including pomfret and prawns.


The Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab and Sindh plains - it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. The river is especially critical since rainfall is meager in the lower Indus valley. Irrigation canals were first built by the people of the Indus valley civilization, and later by the engineers of the Kushan Empire and the Mughal Empire. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India Company in 1850 - the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. The British supervised the construction of one of the most complex irrigation networks in the world. The Guddu Barrage is 1,350 m (4,430 ft) long - irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad, Larkana and Kalat. The Sukkur Barrage serves over 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi).

After Pakistan came into existence, a water control treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960 guaranteed that Pakistan would receive water from the Indus River and its two tributaries the Jhelum River & the Chenab River independently of upstream control by India.[12]

The Indus Basin Project consisted primarily of the construction of two main dams, the Mangla Dam built on the Jhelum River and the Tarbela Dam constructed on the Indus River, together with their subsidiary dams.[13] The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority undertook the construction of the Chashma-Jhelum link canal - linking the waters of the Indus and Jhelum rivers - extending water supplies to the regions of Bahawalpur and Multan. Pakistan constructed the Tarbela Dam near Rawalpindi - standing 2,743 metres (9,000 ft) long and 143 metres (470 ft) high, with an 80-kilometre (50 mi) long reservoir. TheKotri Barrage near Hyderabad is 915 metres (3,000 ft) long and provides additional supplies for Karachi. It support the Chashma barrage near Dera Ismail Khan use for irrigation and flood control. for The Taunsa Barrage near Dera Ghazi Khan produces 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. The extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the valley of Peshawar, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The extensive irrigation and dam projects provide the basis for Pakistan's large production of crops such as cotton, sugarcane and wheat. The dams also generate electricity for heavy industries and urban centres.


The Indus River near Skardu, in Gilgit–Baltistan.
The Dubair Khwarr, a tributary of the Indus, near Shaikhdara, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

The inhabitants of the regions through which the Indus river passes and forms a major natural feature and resource are diverse in ethnicity, religion, national and linguistic backgrounds. On the northern course of the river in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India, live the Buddhist people of Ladakh, of Tibetan stock, and theDards of Indo-Aryan or Dardic stock and practising Buddhism and Islam. Then it descends into Baltistan, northern Pakistan passing the main Balti city of Skardu. On its course river from Dubair Bala also drains into it at Dubair Bazar. People living at this area are mainly Kohistani and speak Kohistani language. Major areas through which Indus river pass through in Kohistan are Dasu, Pattan and Dubair. As it continues through Pakistan, the Indus river forms a distinctive boundary of ethnicity and cultures - upon the western banks the population is largely Pashtun, Baloch, and of other Iranian stock, with close cultural, economic and ethnic ties to eastern Afghanistan and parts of Iran. The eastern banks are largely populated by people of Indo-Aryan stock, such as the Punjabis and the Sindhis. In northern Punjab and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, ethnic Pashtun tribes live alongside Dardic people in the hills (Khowar, Kalash, Shina, etc.), Burushos (in Hunza), and Punjabi people. In the province of Sindh, people of Sindhi backgrounds form the local populations. Upon the western banks of the river live the Baloch and Pashtun people of Balochistan.

Modern issues

Satellite images of the upper Indus River valley, comparing water-levels on 1 August 2009 (top) and 31 July 2010 (bottom)

The Indus is a strategically vital resource for Pakistan's economy and society. After India became independent in 1947 and Pakistan came into existence in 1947, the use of the waters of the Indus and its five eastern tributaries became a major dispute between India and Pakistan. The irrigation canals of the Sutlej valley and the Bari Doabwere split - with the canals lying primarily in Pakistan and the headwork dams in India disrupting supply in some parts of Pakistan. The concern over India building large dams over various Punjab rivers that could undercut the supply flowing to Pakistan, as well as the possibility that India could divert rivers in the time of war, caused political consternation in Pakistan. Holding diplomatic talks brokered by the World Bank, India and Pakistan signed the Indus Waters Treaty in 1960. The treaty gave India control of the three easternmost rivers of the Punjab, the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi, while Pakistan gained control of the three western rivers, the Jhelum, theChenab and the Indus. India retained the right to use of the western rivers for non-irrigation projects. (See discussion regarding a recent dispute about a hydroelectric project on the Chenab (not Indus) known as the Baglihar Project).

There are concerns that extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming are affecting the vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta, while affecting agricultural production as well. There are also concerns that the Indus river may be shifting its course westwards - although the progression spans centuries. On numerous occasions, sediment clogging owing to poor maintenance of canals has affected agricultural production and vegetation. In addition, extreme heat has caused water to evaporate, leaving salt deposits that render lands useless for cultivation.

Recently, India's construction of dams on the river, which Pakistan claims is in violation of the Indus Waters Treaty reducing water flow into Pakistan, has caused Pakistan to take the issue to the international courts for arbitration.

Effects of climate change on the river

The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, said the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term, but issued a strong warning:

"Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China, and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world... In the short term, this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows.. In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines of the Indus River. Once they vanish, water supplies in Pakistan will be in peril."[14]

"There is insufficient data to say what will happen to the Indus," says David Grey, the World Bank's senior water advisor in South Asia. "But we all have very nasty fears that the flows of the Indus could be severely, severely affected by glacier melt as a consequence of climate change," and reduced by perhaps as much as 50 percent. "Now what does that mean to a population that lives in a desert [where], without the river, there would be no life? I don't know the answer to that question," he says. "But we need to be concerned about that. Deeply, deeply concerned."[15]


Over the years factories on the banks of the Indus River have increased levels of water pollution in the river and the atmosphere around it. High levels of pollutants in the river have led to the deaths of endangered Indus River Dolphin. The Sindh Environmental Protection Agency has ordered polluting factories around the river to shut down under the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997.[16] Death of the Indus River Dolphin has also been attributed to fishermen using poison to kill fish and scooping them up.[17][18] As a result, the government banned fishing from Guddu Barrage to Sukkur.[19]

2010 floods

Affected areas as of 26 August 2010

In July 2010, following abnormally heavy monsoon rains, the Indus River rose above its banks and started flooding. The rain continued for the next two months, devastating large areas of Pakistan. In Sindh, the Indus burst its banks near Sukkur on 8 August, submerging the village of Mor Khan Jatoi.[20] In early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River from severely affected northern regions toward western Punjab, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland was destroyed, and the southern province of Sindh.[21] As of September 2010, over two thousand people had died and over a million homes had been destroyed since the flooding began.[22][23]

2011 floods

The 2011 Sindh floods began during the Pakistani monsoon season in mid-August 2011, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in Sindh, eastern Balochistan, and southern Punjab.[24] The floods caused considerable damage; an estimated 434 civilians were killed, with 5.3 million people and 1,524,773 homes affected.[25] Sindh is a fertile region and often called the "breadbasket" of the country; the damage and toll of the floods on the local agrarian economy was said to be extensive. At least 1.7 million acres (690,000 ha; 2,700 sq mi) of arable land were inundated. The flooding followed the previous year's floods, which devastated a large part of the country.[25] Unprecedented torrential monsoon rains caused severe flooding in 16 districts of Sindh.[26]


  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica.
  2. ^ 70% of cattle-breeders desert Banni; by Narandas Thacker, TNN, 14 February 2002; The Times of India
  3. ^ Lost and forgotten: grasslands and pastoralists of Gujarat; by Charul Bharwada and Vinay Mahajan; The forsaken drylands; a symposium on some of India's most invisible people; Seminar; New Delhi; 2006; NUMB 564, pages 35-39; ISSN 0037-1947, Listed at the British Library Online
  4. a b Albinia (2008), p. 307.
  5. ^ Henry YuleIndia, Indies. In Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive. New ed. edited by William Crooke, B.A. London: J. Murray, 1903
  6. ^ Clift, Peter D.; Blusztajn, Jerzy (15 December 2005). "Reorganization of the western Himalayan river system after five million years ago". Nature 438 (7070): 1001–1003.doi:10.1038/nature04379PMID 16355221.
  7. ^ Clift, Peter D.; Shimizu, N.; Layne, G.D.; Blusztajn, J.S.; Gaedicke, C.; Schlüter, H.-U.; Clark, M.K.; and Amjad, S. (August 2001). "Development of the Indus Fan and its significance for the erosional history of the Western Himalaya and Karakoram". GSA Bulletin 113 (8): 1039–1051. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(2001)113<1039:DOTIFA>2.0.CO;2.
  8. ^ Zeitler, Peter K.; Koons, Peter O.; Bishop, Michael P.; Chamberlain, C. Page; Craw, David; Edwards, Michael A.; Hamidullah, Syed; Jam, Qasim M.; Kahn, M. Asif; Khattak, M. Umar Khan; Kidd, William S. F.; Mackie, Randall L.; Meltzer, Anne S.; Park, Stephen K.; Pecher, Arnaud; Poage, Michael A.; Sarker, Golam; Schneider, David A.; Seeber, Leonardo; and Shroder, John F. (October 2001). "Crustal reworking at Nanga Parbat, Pakistan: Metamorphic consequences of thermal-mechanical coupling facilitated by erosion". Tectonics 20 (5): 712–728. doi:10.1029/2000TC001243.
  9. ^ "Indus River"World' top 10 rivers at risk. WWF. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  10. ^ "WWF - Indus River Dolphin". Retrieved 2012-09-22.
  11. ^ "Tarabela Dam". www.structurae.the cat in the hat. Retrieved 2007-07-09.
  12. ^ "Indus Basin Project". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-07-09.
  13. ^ "Global warming benefits to Tibet: Chinese official. Reported 18 August 2009". 17 August 2009. Retrieved 2012-12-04.
  14. ^[dead link]
  15. ^ "SEPA orders polluting factory to stop production"Dawn. 3 Dec 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  16. ^ "Fishing poison killing Indus dolphins, PA told"Dawn. 3/9/2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  17. ^ "'18 dolphins died from poisoning in Jan'"Dawn. 1 May 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  18. ^ "Threat to dolphin: Govt bans fishing between Guddu and Sukkur"The Express Tribune. 9 Mar 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  19. ^ Bodeen, Christopher (8 August 2010). "Asia flooding plunges millions into misery". Associated Press. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
  20. ^ Guerin, Orla (7 August 2010). "Pakistan issues flooding 'red alert' for Sindh province". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
  21. ^ "BBC News - Pakistan floods: World Bank to lend $900m for recovery". 17 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
  22. ^ "BBC News - Millions of Pakistan children at risk of flood diseases". 16 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
  23. ^ "Pakistan floods: Oxfam launches emergency aid response"BBC World News South Asia. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  24. a b "Floods worsen, 270 killed: officials"The Express Tribune. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  25. ^ Government of Pakistan Retrieved on 19 September 2011[dead link]

Physical features

The river rises in the southwestern Tibet Autonomous Region of China at an elevation of about 18,000 feet (5,500 metres). For about 200 miles (320 km) it flows northwest, crossing the southeastern boundary of the disputed Kashmir region at about 15,000 feet (4,600 metres). A short way beyond Leh, in Ladakh(in the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir), it is joined on its left by its first major tributary, the Zaskar River. Continuing for 150 miles (240 km) in the same direction into the Pakistani-administered Northern Areas of the Kashmir region, the Indus is joined by its notable tributary theShyok River on the right bank. Below its confluence with the Shyok, as far as the Kohistan region, it is fed by mighty glaciers on the slopes of the Karakoram Range, the Nanga Parbat massif, and the Kohistan highlands. The Shyok, Shigar, Gilgit, and other streams carry the glacial meltwater into the Indus.

The Shigar River joins the Indus on the right bank near Skardu in Baltistan. Farther downstream theGilgit River is another right-bank tributary, joining it at Bunji. A short distance downstream the Astor River, running off the eastern slope of Nanga Parbat, joins as a left-bank tributary. The Indus then flows west and turns south and southwest to enter the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, in the process skirting around the northern and western sides of the Nanga Parbat massif (26,660 feet [8,126 metres]) in gorges that reach depths of 15,000 to 17,000 feet (4,600 to 5,200 metres) and widths of 12 to 16 miles (19 to 26 km). Trails cling grimly to precipitous slopes overlooking the river from elevations of 4,000 to 5,000 feet (1,200 to 1,500 metres).

After emerging from this highland region, the Indus flows as a rapid mountain stream between the Swat and Hazara areas in North-West Frontier Province until it reaches the reservoir of Tarbela Dam. The Kābul River joins the Indus just above Attock, where the Indus flows at an elevation of 2,000 feet (600 metres) and is crossed by the first bridge carrying rail and road. Finally, it cuts across the Salt Range near Kalabagh to enter the Punjab Plain.

The Indus receives its most notable tributaries from the eastern Punjab Plain. These five rivers—theJhelumChenabRaviBeas, and Sutlej—give the name Punjab (“Five Rivers”) to the region divided between Pakistan and India.After receiving the waters of the Punjab rivers, the Indus becomes much larger and during the flood season (July to September) is several miles wide. It flows through lower Punjab at an elevation of about 260 feet (80 metres). Because it moves so slowly across the plain, it deposits accumulated silt on its bed, which is thus raised above the level of the sandy plain; indeed, most of the plain in Sindh (Sind) province has been built up by alluvium laid down by the Indus. Embankments have been built to prevent flooding, but occasionally these give way, and floods destroy large areas. Such floods occurred in 1947 and 1958. During heavy flooding the river sometimes changes its course.

Near Tatta the Indus branches into distributaries that form a delta and join the sea at various points south-southeast of Karachi. The delta covers an area of 3,000 square miles (7,800 square km) or more (and extends along the coast for about 130 miles (210 km). The uneven surface of the delta contains a network of existing and abandoned channels. The coastal strip, from about 5 to 20 miles (8 to 32 km) inland, is flooded by high tides. The Indus delta has elongated protruding distributaries and low sandy beaches.


The principal rivers of the Indus River system are snow-fed. Their flow varies greatly at different times of the year: the discharge is at a minimum during the winter months (December to February); there is a rise of water in spring and early summer (March to June); and floods occur in the rainy season (July to September). Occasionally there are devastating flash floods. The Indus and its tributaries receive all their waters in the hilly upper parts of their catchments. Therefore, their flow is at a maximum where they emerge out of the foothills, and little surface flow is added in the plains, where evaporation and seepage considerably reduce the flow volume. On the other hand, some water is added by seepage in the period after the monsoon months. In the main stream of the Indus, the water level is at its lowest from mid-December to mid-February. After this the river starts rising, slowly at first and then more rapidly at the end of March. The high-water level usually occurs between mid-July and mid-August. The river then falls rapidly until the beginning of October, when the water level subsides more gradually. Annually, the upper Indus carries about 144 billion cubic yards (110 billion cubic metres)—slightly more than half the total supply of water in the Indus River system. The Jhelum and Chenab combined carry roughly one-fourth, and the Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej combined constitute the remainder of the total supply of the system.

There is considerable physiographic and historical evidence to prove that since the dawn of civilization—at least since the days of the Indus civilization, some 4,000 years ago—the Indus, from the southern Punjab to the sea, has been shifting its course. It is confined between limestone ridges at Rohri inSindh, but thereafter it has wandered, shifting generally to the west, particularly in its delta. In upper Sindh the Indus has shifted westward a distance of about 10 to 20 miles (16 to 32 km) in the last seven centuries. The river is now held back to some extent by higher ground from Sehwan to Thatta at the head of the delta, but the possibility of future shifting cannot be ruled out. There is also evidence of the shifting of the Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej rivers during the historical period.




From its source to its mouth, the annual precipitation in the Indus region varies between 5 and 20 inches (125 and 510 mm). Except for the mountainous section of Pakistan, the Indus valley lies in the driest part of the subcontinent. Northwestern winds sweep the upper Indus valley in winter and bring 4 to 8 inches (100 to 200 mm) of rainfall—vital for the successful growing of wheat and barley. The mountainous region of the upper Indus receives precipitation largely in the form of snow. A large amount of the Indus’s water is provided by melting snows and glaciers of the Karakoram, Hindu Kush, and Himalayan ranges. The monsoon rains (July to September) provide the rest of the flow. The climate of the Indus valley ranges from that of the dry semidesert areas of Sindh and lower Punjab to the severe high mountain climate of Kohistan, Hunza, Gilgit, Ladakh, and western Tibet. January temperatures average below freezing in the mountainous north, while July daytime high temperatures average about 100 °F (38 °C) in Sindh and Punjab. Jacobabad, one of the hottest spots on Earth, is situated west of the Indus River in upper Sindh and often records summer maximums of 120 °F (49 °C).

Plant and animal life

There is a close relationship between climate and vegetation in the Indus valley. In the Sindh on the lower Indus, desert conditions prevail 10 to 25 miles (15 to 40 km) away from the river, and the area is dominated by sand and poor grass cover. Irrigation by floods or canals permits some cultivation, although intensive irrigation often produces soil salinization. In upper Sindh and Punjab provinces, overgrazing and felling timber for fuel have destroyed much of the natural vegetation. Further, prolonged human interference with natural drainage and deforestation in the Himalayan foothills have led to a drop in groundwater levels and a further loss of vegetation. It appears that in prehistoric and earlier historic times the middle Indus region was more wooded than it is at present: accounts of Alexander the Great’s Indian campaigns (c. 325 bce) and records of Mughal hunts in the 16th century and later suggest considerable forest cover. Even today, in the Indus Plain not far from the river, there are thorn forests of open acacia and bush and undergrowth of poppies, vetch, thistles, and chickweed. Near the river there are stretches of tall pampalike grass, and streams and canals are often lined with tamarisk trees and some dense scrub; however, nowhere is there a natural forest. Efforts at reforestation in some parts of the Thal area in the Punjab east of the Indus have been successful. Cultivated areas close to the river have many trees, and the strip below the mountains has something of the appearance of parkland. Coniferous trees abound in the mountainous region along the upper Indus.

The Indus is moderately rich in fish. The best-known variety is called hilsa and is the most important edible fish found in the river. Tatta, Kotri, and Sukkur, all in Sindh, are important fishing centres. Between the Swat and Hazara areas the river is noted for trout fishing. Fish farming has become important in the reservoirs of dams and barrages. Near the mouth of the Indus—for about 150 miles (240 km) along the coast—there are numerous creeks and areas of shallow sea waters. This zone is rich in marine fish, the most important catches including pomfrets and prawns, caught from November to March. A modern fish harbour has been built near the port of Karachi, providing cold storage and marketing. An export trade in prawns has developed, and sea fish are marketed in different parts of Pakistan.


Peoples living along the upper reaches of the Indus (e.g., Tibetans, Ladakhi, and Balti) show affinities with Central rather than South Asia. They speak Tibetan languages and practice Buddhism (although the Balti have adopted Islam). Pastoralism is important in the local economy. In the main Himalayan ranges, areas drained by the headwaters of the major Indus tributaries form a transitional zone where Tibetan cultural features mingle with those of the Indian pahari (hill) region.

Elsewhere in the Indus valley the inhabitants speak Indo-European languages and are Muslims, reflecting repeated incursions of peoples entering the Indian subcontinent from the west over several millennia. The rugged mountains of the western Kashmir region are inhabited by Dardic-speaking groups (Kafir, Kohistanis, Shinas, and Kashmiri Gujar), whose languages, like most in the region, are Indo-European in origin. In the Hunza River valley, the long-lived Burusho speak a language (Burushaski) that has no known ties to any other language. These groups combine herding with irrigation-based cultivation.

Pashtuns, speaking Pashto and closely related to the tribes of Afghanistan, predominate in northwestern Pakistan. The Yusufzai are the largest of the Pashtun tribes, others being the Afridi, Muhmand, Khattak, and Wazir. In the mountainous tribal areas of Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province, the fiercely independent Pashtuns retain their traditional tribal structure and political organization. The well-watered northern Indus plains are settled by agricultural groups who speak PunjabiLahnda, and related dialects and who form the most numerous of the Indus valley peoples. Language, ethnicity, and tribal organization play a less-important role in differentiating groups there. The major distinguishing feature among Punjabi peoples is caste, although without the religious and ritual connotations of the Hindu system. Muslim Jats and Rajputs are important Punjabi communities.

The lower Indus valley is inhabited by agricultural peoples who speak Sindhi and related dialects. Many cultural traits in the region appear to be of considerable antiquity, and the Sindhi pride themselves on their regional distinctiveness. Karachi, though in Sindh, is predominantly an Urdu-speaking city settled by Punjabis and muhajir, immigrants from India who arrived in Pakistan after partition of the subcontinent in 1947.



Irrigation from Indus waters has provided the basis for successful agriculture since time immemorial. Modern irrigation engineering work commenced around 1850, and, during the period of British administration, large canal systems were constructed. In many cases old canals and inundation channels in Sindh and Punjab were revived and modernized; thus, the greatest canal-irrigation system in the world was created. At the partition of British India in 1947, the international boundary between India and West Pakistan cut the irrigation system of the Bari Doab and the Sutlej Valley Project—originally designed as one scheme—into two parts. The headwork fell to India while the canals ran through Pakistan. This led to a disruption in the water supply in some parts of Pakistan. The dispute that thus arose and continued for some years was resolved through the mediation of the World Bank by a treaty between Pakistan and India (1960) known as the Indus Waters Treaty. According to this agreement, the flow of the three western rivers of the Indus basin—the Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab (except a small quantity used in Jammu and Kashmir state)—is assigned to Pakistan, whereas the flow of the three eastern rivers—the Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej—is reserved exclusively for India.

In India a number of dams, barrages, and link canals have been built to distribute water from the eastern Indus tributaries to the Punjab and neighbouring states. The Harike Barrage, at the confluence of the Beas and Sutlej, channels water into the Indira Gandhi Canal, which runs for about 400 miles (640 km) to the southwest to irrigate some 1.5 million acres (607,000 hectares) of desert in western Rajasthan. The main canal was completed in 1987.

Following promulgation of the 1960 treaty, the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority built several linking canals and barrages to divert water from its western rivers to areas in the east lacking water. The biggest of these canals is the Chashma-Jhelum link joining the Indus River with the Jhelum River, with a discharge capacity of some 21,700 cubic feet (615 cubic metres) per second. Water from this canal feeds the Haveli Canal and Trimmu-Sidhnai-Mailsi-Bahawal link canal systems, which provide irrigation to areas in lower Punjab province.

The Indus Waters Treaty also made provision for the construction of two major dams in Pakistan. TheMangla Dam on the Jhelum River near the town of Jhelum, has a crest length of about 10,300 feet (3,100 metres) and a maximum height of more than 450 feet (140 metres) and is one of the largest rolled earth-fill dams in the world. Mangla Reservoir, created by the dam, is 40 miles (64 km) long and has an area of 100 square miles (260 square km). The project also generates some 800 megawatts of hydroelectricity. In addition, the reservoir has been developed as a fishing centre and a tourist attraction as well as a health resort.

A second gigantic project is the Tarbela Dam on the Indus, 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Rawalpindi. The dam, of the earth- and rock-filled type, is 9,000 feet (2,700 metres) long and 470 feet (143 metres) high, and its reservoir is 50 miles long. The dam’s generating capacity is some three times that of theMangla Dam, and its total potential is considerably greater. A third major dam has long been proposed for the Indus at Kalabagh, below Tarbela.

On the Indus itself there are several important headworks, or barrages, after the river reaches the plain. In the mountainous region the principal waterways west of the Indus are the Swat Canals, which flow from the Swat River, a tributary of the Kābul River. These canals provide irrigation for the two chief crops of the area, sugarcane and wheat. The Warsak multipurpose project on the Kābul River, about 12 miles (19 km) northwest of Peshawar, provides irrigation for food crops and fruit orchards in thePeshawar valley and is designed to produce 240,000 kilowatts of electricity. In the plains region the Kalabagh, or Jinnah, Barrage controls the system of canals in the Thal Project, organized in 1949. The project, which irrigates a former desert area, is aimed at expanding agriculture, developing rural industry, and promoting the settlement of population in villages and towns. Farther downstream is the Chashma Barrage. Still farther the Taunsa Barrage, designed for the irrigation of land in the Dera Ghazi Khan and Muzaffargarh districts, also produces about 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. Within the Sindh there are three major barrages on the Indus—Guddu, Sukkur, and Kotri, or Ghulam Muhammad. TheGuddu Barrage is just inside the Sindh border and is some 4,450 feet (1,356 metres) long; it irrigates cultivated land in the region of Sukkur, Jacobabad, and parts of Larkana and Kalat districts. The project has greatly increased the cultivation of rice, but cotton also has become a major crop on the left bank of the river and has replaced rice as a cash crop. The Sukkur Barrage was built in 1932 and is about 1 mile (1.6 km) long. The canals originating from it serve a cultivable area of about 5 million acres (2 million hectares) of land producing both food and cash crops. The Kotri Barrage, also known as the Ghulam Muhammad Barrage, was opened in 1955. It is near Hyderabad and is nearly 3,000 feet (900 metres) long. The right-bank canal provides additional water to the city of Karachi. Sugarcane cultivation has been expanded, and yields of rice and wheat have increased.

Experience in the Indian subcontinent and elsewhere has shown that canal irrigation, unless carefully controlled, can seriously damage cultivated land. The water in unlined canals seeps through the soil and raises the water table, so the soil becomes waterlogged and useless for cultivation. As irrigation by canals has expanded along the Indus and its tributaries, in some areas groundwater has risen above the surface to form shallow lakes. Elsewhere the water has evaporated in the intense summer heat, leaving behind layers of salt that make crop production impossible. Steps have been taken to provide adequate drainage systems to avoid waterlogging and salt buildup.


Until about 1880 the Indus and the other Punjab rivers carried some navigation, but the advent of the railways and expansion of irrigation works have eliminated all but small craft that ply the lower Indus in Sindh. There are fishing boats on the lower Indus, and the upper reaches of rivers and canals above the first railway crossing are now used for floating timber down from the foothills of the Kashmir region.

Indus river dolphin

Indus river dolphin
Size comparison against an average human
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Eutheria
Order: Cetacea
Suborder: Odontoceti
Superfamily: Platanistoidea
Family: Platanistidae
Gray, 1846
Genus: Platanista
Wagler, 1830
Species: P. gangetica
Binomial name
Platanista gangetica
(Lebeck, 1801); (Roxburgh, 1801)

Platanista gangetica gangeticaPlatanista gangetica minor

Ranges of the Ganges River dolphin and of the Indus River dolphin
Indus River dolphin

The Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor) is a subspecies of freshwater river dolphin found in the Indus river

(and its Beas andSutlej tributaries) of Pakistan. From the 1970s until 1998, the Ganges River dolphin and the Indus dolphin were

regarded as separate species; however, in 1998, their classification was changed from two separate species to subspecies of a single species

 (see taxonomy below).


Other names

  • Indus RIver Dolphin, Indus Blind Dolphin, side-swimming dolphin
  • Known locally in Pakistan as "Bhulan", a word which comes from (Sindhiٻلهڻ)


The long jaws and deep brain pan of the Indus river dolphin are visible from this skull cast. From the collection of The Children's Museum of Indianapolis.

The species was described by two separate authors Lebeck and Roxburgh in the year 1801 and it is unclear to whom the original description should be ascribed.[2] Until the 1970s the Indus and Ganges river dolphins were regarded as a single species. The two populations are geographically separate and have not interbred for many hundreds if not thousands of years. Based on differences in skull structure, vertebrae and lipid composition scientists declared the two populations as separate species in the early 1970s.[3] In 1998 the results of these studies were questioned and the classification reverted to the pre-1970 consensus of a single species containing two subspecies until the taxonomy could be resolved using modern techniques such as molecular sequencing. Thus, at present, there are two subspecies recognized in the genus Platanista Platanista gangetica minor (the Indus dolphin) and Platanista gangetica gangetica (the Ganges river dolphin).[4]

Physical description

The Indus dolphin has the long, pointed nose characteristic of all river dolphins. The teeth are visible in both the upper and lower jaws even when the mouth is closed. The teeth of young animals are almost an inch long, thin and curved; however, as animals age the teeth undergo considerable changes and in mature adults become square, bony, flat disks. The snout thickens towards its end. The species does not have a crystalline eye lens, rendering it effectively blind, although it may still be able to detect the intensity and direction of light. Navigation and hunting are carried out using echolocation. The body is a brownish colour and stocky at the middle. The species has only a small triangular lump in the place of a dorsal fin. The flippers and tail are thin and large in relation to the body size, which is about 2-2.2 metres in males and 2.4–2.6 m in females. The oldest recorded animal was a 28 year old male 199 centimetres in length.[5] Mature adult females are larger than males. Sexual dimorphism is expressed after females reach about 150 cm; the female rostrum continues to grow after the male rostrum stops growing, eventually reaching approximately 20 cm longer. Calves have been observed between January and May and do not appear to stay with the mother for more than a few months. Gestation is thought to be approximately 9–10 months.

The species feeds on a variety of shrimp and fish, including carp and catfish. Dolphins are usually encountered on their own or in loose aggregations; they do not form tight, obviously interacting groups.

Human interaction

The Indus river dolphin has been very adversely affected by human use of the river systems in the sub-continent. Entanglement in fishing nets can cause significant damage to local population numbers. Some individuals are still taken each year and their oil and meat used as a liniment, as an aphrodisiac and as bait for catfish. Irrigation has lowered water levels throughout their ranges. Poisoning of the water supply from industrial and agricultural chemicals may have also contributed to population decline. Perhaps the most significant issue is the building of dozens of dams along many rivers, causing the segregation of populations and a narrowed gene pool in which dolphins can breed. There are currently three sub-populations of Indus dolphins considered capable of long-term survival if protected.[6]

The Indus river dolphin is listed by the IUCN as endangered on their Red List of Threatened Species [1] and by the U.S. government National Marine Fisheries Service under the U.S.Endangered Species Act.

See also


  1. a b Smith, B. D. and G. T. Braulik (2008). Platanista gangetica. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 14 December 2008. Database entry includes justification for why this species is endangered
  2. ^ Kinze, C.C. (2000). "Rehabilitation of Platanista gangetica (Lebeck, 1801) as the valid scientific name of the Ganges dolphin". Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden ([1]74: 193–203.
  3. ^ Pilleri, G., G. Marcuzzi and O. Pilleri (1982). "Speciation in the Platanistoidea, systematic, zoogeographical and ecological observations on recent species".Investigations on Cetacea 14: 15–46.
  4. ^ Rice, DW (1998). Marine mammals of the world: Systematics and distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy. ISBN 978-1891276033.
  5. ^ Kasuya, T., 1972. Some information on the growth of the Ganges dolphin with a comment on the Indus dolphin. Sci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst., 24: 87–108
  6. ^ Braulik, G. T. (2006). "Status assessment of the Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor, March–April 2001". Biological Conservation 129: 579–590.doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2005.11.026.

Panjnad River

Panjnad River (Urdu/Punjabi Shahmukhi: پنجند, Punjabi Gurmukhi ਪੰਜਨਦ) (panj = five, nadi = river) is a river at the extreme end of Bahawalpur district in PunjabPakistan. Panjnad River is formed by successive confluence of the five rivers of Punjab, namely JhelumChenabRaviBeas and Sutlej. Jhelum and Ravi join Chenab, Beas joins Sutlej, and then Sutlej and Chenab join to form Panjnad 10 miles north of Uch Sharif in Bahawalpur district. The combined stream runs southwest for approximately 45 miles and joins Indus River atMithankot. The Indus continues into the Arabian Sea. A dam on Panjnad has been erected; it provides irrigation channels for Punjab and Sindh provinces south of the Sutlej and east of the Indus rivers.

Beyond the confluence of Indus and Panjnad rivers, the Indus river was known as Satnad (Sat = seven) carrying the waters of seven rivers including Indus river, which is believed to be in earlier times the Saraswati/Ghaggar/Hakra river which eventually dried and became a seasonal river due to seismic shifts in the glacial region of Himachal Pradesh where it originated and later on Kabul river and the five rivers of Punjab.

Chenab River

A view of River Chenab near Gujrat
A view of River Chenab near Sialkot
A view of River Chenab near Gujrat cityGujrat
A View of Marala Headworks on Chenab near Sialkot
A view of Chandrabhagha River throughPangi valley in Himachal Pradesh

The Chenab River (Urduدرياۓ چناب‎), (/əˈnɑːb/,PunjabiਚਨਾਬcanābHindiचनाब, literally: 'Moon(Chan) چن River(aab)' آب) is a major river of Jammu and KashmirIndia and the Punjab in Pakistan. It forms in the upper Himalayas in the Lahaul and Spiti district ofHimachal Pradesh, India, and flows through the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of the PunjabPakistan. The waters of the Chenab are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty.[1][2]


The waters of the Chenab start from snow melt from the Bara Lacha Pass, 32°44′N 77°26′E, in Himachal Pradesh. The waters flowing south from the pass are known as the Chandra River and those that flow north are called the Bhaga River. Eventually the Bhaga flows around to the south joining the Chandra at the village of Tandi. A motorable road runs along the Bhaga River, from Khoskhas to Tandi. The Chandra and Bhaga meet to form the Chandrbhaga River at Tandi. It becomes the Chenab when it joins the Marau River at Bhandera Kot, 12 km fromKishtwar Town in Jammu and Kashmir.

It flows from the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and Jech interfluves (Doabs in Persian). It is joined by the Jhelum River at Trimmu تریمو and then by the Ravi River Ahmedpur Sial احمدپور سیال. It then merges with the Sutlej River near Uch SharifPakistan to form the Panjnad or the 'Five Rivers', the fifth being the Beas River which joins theSatluj near Ferozepur, India. The Chenab then joins the Indus at Mithankot, . The total length of the Chenab is approximately 960 kilometres.


The river was known to Indians in the Vedic period[3] as Chandrabhaga (Sanskritचंद्रभाग), also Ashkini (Sanskritअश्किनि) or Iskmati (Sanskrit:इस्कामति) and as Acesines to the Ancient Greeks.[4] In 325 BC, Alexander the Great allegedly founded the town of Alexandria on the Indus(present day Uch Sharif or Mithankot or Chacharan in Pakistan) at the confluence of the Indus and the combined stream of Punjab rivers (currently known as the Panjnad River).[5]

The Chenab has the same place in the consciousness of the people of the Punjab as, say, the Rhine holds for the Germans, or the Danube for the Austrians and the Hungarians. It is the iconic river around which Punjabi consciousness revolves, and plays a prominent part in the tale of Heer Ranjha, the Punjabi national epic and the legend of Sohni Mahiwal.[citation needed]

Chenab today

Chenab in Indian City of Akhanoor

This river has been in the news of late due to the steps taken by the Indian government to build a number of hydroelectric power dams along its length (in India), notably Baglihar Dam, as part of the Indus Basin Project. These planned projects on Chenab have been "contested" by Pakistan, though Pakistan's objections have been dismissed by the Indian government.


Chenab is tributary to Indus river

There are several road and railway bridges on Chenab.


  1. ^ "River Chenab". Retrieved 2007-06-17.
  2. ^ "Indus Waters Treaty". The World Bank. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
  3. ^ Yule, Henry; Arthur Coke Burnell, William Crooke. "Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words & phrases and of kindred terms"Pg.741. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
  4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica article on the Chenab
  5. ^ Alexandria (Uch)
  6. ^ "Highest railway bridge in J&K to be ready by 2015". 18 June 2012.


- The Heaven on Earth


Ravi River

Ravi River
Ravi river.
Origin Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh, India
Mouth Indo-Pak border into the Chenab River
Basincountries India, Pakistan
Length 720 kilometres (450 mi)
Basin area India and Pakistan
River system Indus River System
Left tributaries Beas and Sutlej
Right tributaries Chenab and Indus

The Ravi (Urduراوی‎,Sanskritइरावती, परुष्णिHindiरावीPunjabiਰਾਵੀ), is a trans-boundary river flowing through Northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is one of the six rivers of the Indus System in Punjab region (name of Punjab means "Five Rivers").[1]

After the partition of India in August 1947, the waters of the Ravi River, along with five other rivers of the Indus system (Beas, Sutlej, Chenab, Jhelum and Indus), divided India and Pakistan under the Indus Water Treaty, which was facilitated by the World Bank. Subsequently, Indus Basin Project has been developed in Pakistan and many Inter Basin Water Transfers, Irrigation,Hydropower and multipurpose projects have been built in India.


According to ancient history traced to Vedas, the Ravi River was known as Iravati (also spelt Airavati)[2]

Part of the battle of the ten kings was fought on a River, which according to Yaska (Nirukta 9.26) refers to the Iravati River (Ravi River) in the Punjab.


The Ravi River, a trans-boundary river of India and Pakistan, is an integral part of the Indus River Basin and forms the headwaters of the Indus basin. The waters of the Ravi River drain into the Indian Ocean through the Indus River in Pakistan. The river rises in the Bara Bhangal, District Chamba in Himachal Pradesh, India. The river drains a total catchment area of 14,442 square kilometres (5,576 sq mi) in India after flowing for a length of 720 kilometres (450 mi). Flowing westward, it is hemmed by the Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar ranges, forming a triangular zone.[3]

River course  Source reach

Pir Panjal Range
Source of Budhil River, in Himachal Pradesh a major tributary of the Ravi River

The Ravi River originates in the Himalayas in the Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It follows a north-westerly course and is a perennial river.[1] It is the smallest of the five Punjab rivers that rises from glacier fields at an elevation of 14,000 feet (4,300 m), on the southern side of the Mid Himalayas. It flows through Barabhangal, Bara Bansu and Chamba districts. It flows in rapids in its initial reaches with boulders seen scattered in the bed of the river. The Ravi River in this reach flows in a gorge with a river bed slope of 1:185 ft per mile, and is mostly fed by snow melt, as this region falls under rain shadow zone. Two of its major tributaries, the Budhil and Nai or Dhona join 40 miles (64 km) downstream from its source. The Budhil River rises in Lahul range of hills and is sourced from the Manimahesh Kailash Peak and the Manimahesh Lake (elevation 4,080 metres (13,390 ft)) below the peak, and both are visited as sacred Hindu pilgrimage sites. The entire length of Budhil is 45 miles (72 km) where it has a bed slope of 1:314 ft per mile. It flows through the ancient capital of Bharmwar, now known asBharmour in Himachal Pradesh. During 1858–1860, the Raja of Bharmour had considered the Budhil valley as an excellent source ofDeodar trees for supply to the British Raj. However, a part of the forest surrounding the temple was considered sacred and declared a reserved area. The second tributary, the Nai, rises at Kali Debi pass, flows for a length of 30 miles (48 km) (with a bed slope of 1:366 ft per mile) from its source at Trilokinath up to its confluence with the Ravi. This valley was also exploited for its forest wealth during the British period.[4][5]

Kashmir valley seen from satellite. Eastern sector of snow capped Pir Panjalrange separates Beas and Ravi River basins from the Chenab valley

Another major tributary that joins the Ravi River, just below Bharmour, the old capital of Chamba, is the Seul River from the northern direction. The valley formed by the river was also exploited for its rich timber trees. However, the valley has large terraces, which are very fertile and known as "the garden of Chamba". crops grown here supply grains to the capital region and to Dalhousie town and its surrounding areas. One more major tributary that joins the Ravi River near Bissoli is the Siawa. This river was also exploited for its forest resources, (controlled by the then Raja of Chamba) originating from the Jammu region. The valley is also formed by another major tributary that joins Seul River, the Baira-Nalla. Its sub-basin is in the Chamba district, located above Tissa. Baira drains the southern slopes of the Pir Panjal Range. The valley has an elevation variation between 5,321 metres (17,457 ft) and 2,693 metres (8,835 ft).[3][4][5]

Tant Gari is another small tributary that rises from the subsidiary hill ranges of the Pir Panjal Range to the East of Bharmour. The valley formed by this stream is U-shaped with a river bed scattered with boulders and glacial morainic deposits.[5]

Boats floating besides the Ravi River in Lahore.
Bridge of boats on the Ravi taken by Unknown photographer in 1880.
Main Ravi River

The main Ravi River flows through the base of Dalhousie hill, past the Chamba town. It is located at an elevation of 2,807 feet (856 m) (where a long wooden bridge existed to cross the Ravi River).[6] It flows into the south-west, near Dalhousie, and then cuts a gorge in the Dhauladhar Range, before entering the Punjab plain near Madhopur and Pathankot. It then flows along the Indo–Pak border for 80 kilometres (50 mi) before entering Pakistan and joining the Chenab River. The total length of the river is about 725 kilometres (450 mi).[1]

Ujh River is another major tributary of the Ravi River. its source is located in the Kailash mountains at an elevation of 4,300 metres (14,100 ft), close to the Bhaderwah Mountains in Jammu district. After flowing for 100 kilometres (62 mi) stretch, it joins Ravi at Nainkot in Pakistan.

As the Ravi flows past Lahore in Pakistan (26 kilometres (16 mi) below Amritsar in India) it is called 'The river of Lahore' since that city is located on its eastern bank. After passing through Lahore the river takes a turn at Kamlia and then debouches into the Chenab River, south of the town of Ahmadpur Sial. On its western bank is the town of Shahdara Bagh with the tomb of Jahangir and the Tomb of Noor Jahan.[1][3]

The Ravi Toll Plaza is built before Ravi River's bridge, in Lahore on the Islamabad-Lahore Motorway.
Change of river course

According to satellite imagery studies carried out over a period of 20 years (between 1972–1973 and 1991–1993), the river coursing along the India–Pakistan border meanders substantially in the alluvial plains of the Amritsar and Gurdaspur districts of Punjab. This has resulted in successive damage in the Indian Territory as a result of the river changing its course towards India. The reason attributed to this change in the course of the river is massive river training structures/bunds constructed by Pakistan in its part of the river, close to the old course of the river. The shift in the course of the river is reported to be 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi) towards India.[7]

River water pollution

In the trans-boundary Ravi River flowing from India to Pakistan, in urban areas of Lahore the pollution levels in the river discharge are reportedly very high, which is attributed to careless disposal of large amount of industrial and agricultural waste water and faulty drainage system in both countries.[8][9] A 72 km stretch of the Ravi River from Lahore Siphon to Baloki headworks indicates heavy contamination of the water and sediment with Cd, Cr, Co and Cu. The river sediments are highly contaminated and have become secondary source for pollution of the river water, even though some control over unauthorized discharges into the river have been checked. Hence, measures to check metal re-mobilization from sediments into the river flows needs attention.[8] The worst affected drainage is the Hudiara drain, a tributary of the Ravi River. It is also a transborder problem involving both India and Pakistan. A UNDP funded a special programme was launched in 2006 to address the issue in both countries.[9]

Ravi river basin vegetation

The Ravi valley in its upper reaches has Deodar, walnutQuercus ilexdaphnemulberryalder, edible pine (Pinus gerardiana), twisted cypress (Cupressus torulosa)chinar(Platanus orientalis), daphne papyraceacedrela serata, and sissoolive and kakkar (raus).[10]


The waters of the Ravi River are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty, signed by India and Pakistan. Within India, the river is under the jurisdiction of the riparian states of Punjab, Haryana, Kashmir and Rajasthan, but management is presided by the Supreme Court of India and the Ravi Beas Tribunal, set up in 1986 for the purpose.

Pre-partition utilization
A map of the Punjab region ca. 1947 showing the doabas formed by Ravi River with other rivers of the Indus River system.

On the Ravi River, the earliest project built was the Madhopur Headworks, in 1902. It is a run-of-the river project (no storage envisaged) to divert flows through the Upper Bari Doab Canal (also known as Central Bari Doab Canal) to provide irrigation in the command area of the then unified India. Doabas formed by the Ravi River are known as the Rechna Doab – between the Chenab and the Ravi River, and the Bari Doab or Majha – between the Ravi and the Beas River. Government of India has assessed the pre-partition utilization in India (Punjab) as 1,476,000 acre feet (1.821 km3).[11]

Chamera Lake and dam

The Hydropower potential of Ravi River system has been assessed as 2294 MW.[12] The hydropower potential developed since 1980s is through installation of Baira Suil Hydroelelectric Power Project of 198 MW capacity, the Chamera-I of 540 MW capacity commissioned in 1994, the Ranjitsagar Multipurpose Project (600 MW) completed in 1999 and the Chamera-II of 300 MW capacity in the upstream of Chamera-I commissioned in 2004.[13]

Multipurpose development

The major multipurpose project (IrrigationHydropowerFlood Control, development of Fisheries, Tourism and so forth) built on the river is the Ranjit Sagar Dam (also known as Thein dam as it is located in Thein village). The left bank is in Punjab and the right bank is in Jammu and Kashmir. It is located on the main stem of the Ravi River, about 24 kilometres (15 mi) upstream of Madhopur Headworks (built during pre-partition time). The project is an outcome of the development plan conceived for the utilization of the waters of three eastern rivers allocated to India under the Indus Treaty, namely the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi, for irrigation, hydropower generation and other consumptive uses.[14][15][16][17]

A proposal for building a storage dam on the Ravi River was initially planned in 1912, envisaging a 200 feet (61 m) high dam. A committee later conducted a survey of the area, but it wasn't until 1954 that geologists fully inspected the project area. In 1957, a storage Dam was proposed on the Ravi River for irrigation purposes only. The power generation aspect was not considered then. It was only in 1964 that the project was conceived for multipurpose development and submitted to Government of India for approval. Finally, in April 1982, the project was approved for construction by the Government of India.

The project, as built now, has a 160 metres (520 ft) high earth gravel shell dam with a gross irrigation potential of 348,000 hectares (860,000 acres) of land and power generation of 600 MW (4 units of 150 MW capacity each).[14][16][17]

The geomorpohological setting of the river basin, which has a large number of terraces between Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal ranges, is attributed to the truly Himalayan characteristics of the river reflecting the "cis-Himalayan tectonic; structural, lithological and climatic conditions. Obviously it is different from the antecedent Indus and Sutlej".[18]

International Water Sharing Treaty

The Indus River system comprising the rivers, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej, Chenab, Jhelum and Indus- a shared legacy between India and Pakistan

The upper reaches of the main Indus River and its tributaries lie in India whereas the lower reaches are in Pakistan. Following the partition of India in August 1947, a dispute arose between India and Pakistan on sharing of the waters of the Indus River Basin. The dispute was resolved with the intervention of the World Bank and a treaty was signed in 1960 on sharing of the Indus waters between India and Pakistan.[19][20]

The Indus System of Rivers comprises the three Western Rivers in the Indus, the Jhelum and Chenab together with three Eastern Rivers; the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi. To establish the ownership of these waters, an Indus Water Treaty was signed between India and Pakistan on April 1, 1960, under monitoring of the World Bank. The treaty, under Article 5.1, envisages the sharing of waters of the rivers Ravi, Beas, Sutlej, Jhelum and Chenab which join the Indus River on its left bank (eastern side) in Pakistan. According to this treaty, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, which constitute the eastern rivers, are allocated for exclusive use by India before they enter Pakistan. However, a transition period of 10 years was permitted in which India was bound to supply water to Pakistan from these rivers until Pakistan was able to build the canal system for utilization of waters of Jhelum, Chenab and the Indus itself, allocated to it under the treaty. Similarly, Pakistan has exclusive use of the Western Rivers Jhelum, Chenab and Indus but with some stipulations for development of projects on these rivers in India. Pakistan also received one-time financial compensation for the loss of water from the Eastern rivers. Since March 31, 1970, after the 10-year moratorium, India has secured full rights for use of the waters of the three rivers allocated to it.[21][22] The treaty resulted in partitioning of the rivers rather than sharing of their waters.[23]

Under this treaty, the two countries also agreed to exchange data and co-operate in matters related to the treaty. For this purpose, treaty envisaged creation of the Permanent Indus Commission, with a commissioner appointed by each country.[22] The Indus Waters Treaty is the only International treaty that has been implemented over the last 60 years with due diligence and sincerity by both India and Pakistan, in spite of many wars fought between the two countries (the treaty was not revoked either by India or Pakistan during the 1965 or the 1971 war).[19][24]

Inter-State Water Dispute

Even prior to the partition of India in August 1947, India had developed projects on the river Ravi and Beas River system. When the treaty was under debate, India had taken advance action to develop the three rivers, which were eventually allocated to it under the treaty. According to a directive of the Government of India, planning for development of the Ravi and Beas rivers was initiated concurrently with the treaty negotiations, which involved four riparian states of Punjab, PEPSU (this was merged with Punjab and subsequently Punjab was divided, and additionally the Haryana state was created), Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) within the ambit of the already developed Bhakra Nangal Dam project on the Sutlej River. A review of the flows in the two river systems revealed that prior to partition of the country and up to the time of the signing of the Indus Treaty, 3,130,000 acre feet (3.86 km3) of water was under utilization through major irrigation systems such as the Upper Bari Doab Canal System (1959) and the Lower Bari Doab Canal System (1915). The unused flow in the two river systems was assessed at 15,580,000 acre feet (19.22 km3), which was planned to be developed by the four states of J&K, PEPSU, Punjab and Rajasthan. However, with the merger of PEPSU with Punjab and subsequent bifurcation of Punjab into two states, a dispute arose on the allocation of Ravi and Beas waters for which a Tribunal was set up under the Interstate River Water Disputes Act.[11][25]

Contrary to the claims of Punjab state, small part of Haryana state lying north in Panchkula district[26] is part of Sutlej river basin area in addition to Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in India. Thus Haryana is also a riparian state of Indus river basin.

Following the reorganization of the state of Punjab in 1966, Haryana State was created. This was followed by a notification by the Government of India dated 24 March 1976 allocating the surplus waters between Punjab and Haryana in due consideration of the powers conferred by Sub Section (I) of Section 78 of the Punjab Reorganization Act, 1966 (31 of 1966). The allocation was challenged in the Supreme Court by Haryana. A tripartite agreement followed on 31 December 1981, based on the revised mean annual flows from the flow series of 1921–60 assessed as 20,560,000 acre feet (25.36 km3) (including prepartition use of 3,130,000 acre feet (3.86 km3) and transit losses in the Madhopur Beas Link of 260,000 acre feet (0.32 km3)) vis-a-vis the figure of 15,850,000 acre feet (19.55 km3) assessed in earlier allocation, which was based on the flow series of 1921–45. The revised assessed surplus supplies of 17,170,000 acre feet (21.18 km3) (from flow and storage) was allocated as:[11]

Share of Punjab 4.22 MAF; Share of Haryana 3.50 MAF ; Share of Rajasthan 8.60 MAF; Quantity earmarked for Delhi Water supply 0.20 MAF; Share of Jammu & Kashmir 0.65MAF with some specific provisions.[11]

However, the legality of this agreement was challenged by Punjab. This was followed by the Punjab accord signed by the then Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi and SantHarchand Singh Longowal, President of the Shiromani Akali Dal, on the 24th July, 1985. This accord stipulated that

The farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan will continue to get water not less than what they are using from the Ravi Beas system as on 1.7.1985. Waters used for consumptive purposes will also remain unaffected. Quantum of usage claimed shall be verified by the Tribunal referred to in paragraph 9.2 below. 9.2 The claim of Punjab and Haryana regarding the shares in their remaining waters shall be referred for adjudication to a Tribunal to be presided over by Supreme Court Judge. The decision of this Tribunal will be rendered within six months and would be binding on both parties. All legal and constitutional steps in this respect to be taken expeditiously; 9.3 The construction of Sutlej Yamuna Link (S.Y.L.) canal shall continue. The canal shall be completed by August 1986.[11]

Following the above accord, Ravi & Beas Waters Tribunal (RBWT) came to be set up in April 1986, in pursuance of paragraphs 9.1 & 9.2 of Punjab Settlement (Rajiv-Longowal Accord, 1985) inter-alia to adjudicate the claims of Punjab and Haryana in Ravi-Beas waters. The Terms of Reference was set and also the time for submission of the report. The Tribunal submitted its report on 30 January 1987. However, the report was contested as Rajasthan also moved an application "seeking explanation and guidance regarding the report of this Ravi Beas waters Tribunal, 1987". The Tribunal is further examining the matter. It is yet to submit its further report to the Government on the pleas submitted by the party States and the Central Government also seeking explanation/guidance on its earlier report. In the mean time, a Presidential reference on Punjab Termination of Agreements Act, 2004 is pending before the Honorable Supreme Court. Hence, the further hearings of the Tribunal and its final report are now enjoined on the outcome of the Supreme Court hearing of the Presidential reference.[11][27]

Punjab has not allowed the construction of the Sutlej Yamuna Link (SYL) canal in its territory for transferring Haryana share of water from the Indus river basin. The SYL canal lying in Haryana was completed but idling for want of water from the Sutlej River. If Haryana is interested in getting its water share as per the agreements, it can construct the remaining canal via Himachal Pradesh area bypassing Punjab area totally by tapping water directly from the Bhakra Nangal reservoir located in Himachal Pradesh. The Minimum drawdown level of Bhakra Nangal reservoir and the topography in Himachal state is suitable for the SYL (refer Google earth). Additional water from Sutlej River is very much useful to augment drinking water supplies of ever expanding cities like Delhi, Gurgoan, Panchkula, Chandigarh, etc. in addition to meet the agriculture and industrial requirements in entire Haryana state.

Punjab is contemplating to construct 206 MW Shahpur kandi hydro electric project on the Ravi river between Ranjitsagar dam and Madhopur head works.[28] This stretch of the river is forming boundary between J & K state and Punjab state. Since Punjab had unilaterally exited from the earlier water sharing agreements, J & K state refused the project construction. Also J & K state is going ahead with the construction of Ravi canal originating from Basantpur to irrigate 133,000 acres of land in Jammu region.[29] This canal would draw river water by pumping the water released downstream from the Rangitsagar reservoir for which J & K state is not required to take consent from Punjab as it is not bound by earlier river water sharing agreements.[30]

Inter-basin water transfer

Transfer of surplus water from one basin to another, termed as Inter Basin Water Transfer has been effectively implemented on the Ravi River. The surplus waters of the Ravi River have been transferred directly first to the Beas River through the Ravi-Beas Link. A further link from Beas River to the Sutlej River by the Beas Sutlej Link augments storage of theBhakra reservoir in India.[31]


  1. a b c d "Ravi River". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-04-11.
  2. ^ Hastings, James (2003). Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Part 18. Kessinger Publishing. p. 605. ISBN 0-7661-3695-7. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  3. a b c Jain, Sharad.K.; Pushpendra K. Agarwal and Vijay P. Singh (2007). Hydrology and Water Resources of India. Springer. pp. 481–484. ISBN 1-4020-5179-4. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  4. a b Cleghorn, H. (2001). "Report upon the forests of the Punjab and the Western Himalaya"Ravi River (Indus Publishing). pp. 109–112. ISBN 81-7387-120-5. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  5. a b c "Ravi River in Himachal". Himachal Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  6. ^ Cleghorn, p.113
  7. ^ Thomas, Abraham; Sharma, PK (1998). "The shift of ravi river and the geomorphological features along its course in amritsar and gurdaspur districts of punjab". Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 26: 57.doi:10.1007/BF03007340.
  8. a b "Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediments of the River Ravi,Pakistan" (pdf). International Journal Of Agriculture & Biology. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
  9. a b "Pakistan, India Join Hands to Clean Canal". River Basin Initiative. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
  10. ^ Cleghorn, pp.112–113
  11. a b c d e f "Brief Note on Ravi, Beas and Sutlej system"Ravi River. Water Resources Department, Government of Rajasthan.
  12. ^ "Base Line set up of the area" (pdf). Satlu Vidyut Nigam Ltd. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  13. ^ Dr. Mohinder Kumar Slariya. "The Other Side of Hydroelectric Power Development:-A Study of NHPC Owned Power Projects" (pdf). Government PG College, Chamba Himachal Pradesh. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  14. a b "Ranjit Sagar Dam (Hydro Electric Project) 4 X 150 MW". Punjab State Electricity Board. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
  15. ^ "Information on some major projects"Ranjit Sagar Dam. Central Water Commission: National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  16. a b "Punjab"Irrigation. Retrieved 2010-04-14. Unknown parameter |unused_data=ignored (help)
  17. a b "Hydropower potential in India".
  18. ^ The Indian geographical journal, Volume 60. Indian Geographical Society. 1985. p. 188. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  19. a b "The Indus waters Treaty A South Asia Program". Retrieved 2010-04-14.[dead link]
  20. ^ "Water Sharing Conflicts Between Countries, and Approaches to Resolving Them"(pdf). Honolulu: Global Environment and Energy in the 21st century. p. 41. Retrieved 2010-04-14.[dead link]
  21. ^ Garg, Santosh Kumar (1999). International and interstate river water disputes. Laxmi Publications. pp. 54–55. ISBN 81-7008-068-1. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  22. a b "Indus Waters Treaty 1960" (pdf). Site Resources; World Bank. pp. 1–24.
  23. ^ "Water Sharing Conflicts Between Countries, and Approaches to Resolving Them"(pdf). Honolulu: Global Environment and Energy in the 21st century. p. 98. Retrieved 2010-04-14.[dead link]
  24. ^ "War over water". Guardian. 2002-06-03. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  25. ^ "water sharing Conflicts within Countries" (pdf). Honolulu: Global Environment and Energy in the 21st century. 2004. Retrieved 2010=04-14.
  26. ^ "Wet lands of Haryana state" (pdf). GoI. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
  27. ^ "River Water Disputes". Government of India. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  28. ^ "Shahpur kandi HEP - PSPCL". Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  29. ^ "Punjab Loses Teeth, J&K Gets a Canal - Free Press Kashmir". April 23, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  30. ^ "Agreement between Punjab and J&K on Ranjit Sagar Dam, etc". 1979. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  31. ^ Garg, p.98

Jhelum River

Jhelum River-Pakistan.jpg
Jhelum River during the summer
Indus river.svg
Flow of the Indus, in which the Jhelum ends
Length 740

Jehlam River or Jhelum River Urduدریاۓ جہلم‎, /ˈləm/ (Sanskritवितस्ताKashmiriVyethHindiझेलमPunjabiਜੇਹਲਮ(Gurmukhi)(Nastaliq)) is a river that flows in India and Pakistan. It is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District. It is a tributary of the Chenab River and has a total length of about 505 miles (813 kilometers).[1]


Verinag Water Spring-Chief Source of Jhelum River
A photograph from 1900 shows a passenger traversing the river precariously seated in a small suspended cradle.

The river Jhelum is called Vitastā in the Rigveda and Hydaspes by the ancient Greeks. The Vitasta (Sanskritवितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā) is mentioned as one of the major rivers by the holy scriptures of the Indo-Aryans — the Rigveda. It has been speculated that the Vitastā must have been one of the seven rivers (sapta-sindhu) mentioned so many times in the Rigveda. The name survives in the Kashmiri name for this river as Vyeth. According to the major religious work Srimad Bhagavatam, the Vitastā is one of the many transcendental rivers flowing through land of Bharata, or ancient India.[2]

The River Jhelum below the bridge beside Jhelum City

The river was regarded as a god by the ancient Greeks, as were most mountains and streams; the poet Nonnus in theDionysiaca (section 26, line 350) makes the Hydaspes a titan-descended god, the son of the sea-god Thaumas and the cloud-goddess Elektra. He was the brother of Iris, the goddess of the rainbow, and half-brother to the Harpies, the snatching winds. Since the river is in a country foreign to the ancient Greeks, it is not clear whether they named the river after the god, or whether the god Hydaspes was named after the river. Alexander the Great and his army crossed the Jhelum in BC 326 at theBattle of the Hydaspes River where it is believed that he defeated the Indian king, Porus. According to Arrian (Anabasis, 29), he built a city "on the spot whence he started to cross the river Hydaspes", which he named Bukephala (orBucephala[disambiguation needed]) to honour his famous horse Bukephalus or Bucephalus which was buried in Jalalpur Sharif. It is thought that ancient Bukephala was near the site of modern Jhelum City. According to a historian of Gujrat district, Mansoor Behzad Butt, Bukephalus was buried in Jalalpur Sharif, but the people of Mandi Bahauddin, a district close to Jehlum, believed that their tehsil Phalia was named after Bucephalus, Alexander's dead horse. They say that the name Phalia was the distortion of the word Bucephala. The waters of the Jhelum are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty.India is working on a hydropower project on a tributary of Jhelum river to establish first-use rights on the river water over Pakistan as per the Indus waters Treaty.[3]

Verinag in Kashmir

Verinag is approximately 80 km from Srinagar, by road, at an elevation of 1,876 m. It is believed that the eponymous Verinag spring is the chief source of the river Jhelum. There is an octagonal base at the spring, surrounded by a covered passage.

The Verinag spring is one of the principle tourist attractions of Verinag. The spring, which was originally shaped in a circular form was given a change of shape during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir in 1620, when he gave orders to renovate the spring in the Mughal traditional shape of an octagon. Today, picturesque in its settings and surrounded by tall pine trees, the Verinag Spring is characterized by waters which are calm and sparklingly clear.

The easiest and fastest way of reaching Verinag is by air. The nearest airport is in the Badgam District around 80 km away from the village of VerinagVerinag is well-connected to a number of other regions of Jammu and Kashmir. There are a number of well maintained roads which lead to Verinag.


The river Jhelum rises from Verinag Spring situated at the foot of the Pir Panjal in the south-eastern part of the valley of Kashmir in India. It flows through Srinagar and the Wular lake before entering Pakistan through a deep narrow gorge. The Neelum River, the largest tributary of the Jhelum, joins it, at Domel Muzaffarabad, as does the next largest, the Kunhar River of the Kaghan valley. It also connects with rest of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir on Kohala Bridge east of Circle Bakote. It is then joined by the Poonch river, and flows into the Mangla Dam reservoir in the district of Mirpur. The Jhelum enters the Punjab in the Jhelum District. From there, it flows through the plains of Pakistan's Punjab, forming the boundary between the Chaj and Sindh Sagar Doabs. It ends in a confluence with the Chenab at Trimmu in District Jhang. The Chenab merges with the Sutlej to form the Panjnad River which joins the Indus River at Mithankot.

Dams and barrages

Water control structures are being built as a result of the Indus Basin Project, including the following:

  • Mangla Dam, completed in 1967, is one of the largest earthfill dams in the world, with a storage capacity of 5,900,000 acre feet (7.3 km3)
  • Rasul Barrage, constructed in 1967, has a maximum flow of 850,000 ft³/s (24,000 m³/s).
  • Trimmu Barrage, constructed in 1939 some 90 km from Mari Shah Sakhira town, at the confluence with the Chenab, has maximum discharge capacity of 645,000 ft³/s (18,000 m³/s).
  • Harahpur (Victoria Bridge) Constructed in 1933 Approximate 5 km from malakwal near Chak nizam Village. Its length is 1 km mainly used by Pakistan Railways but there is a passage for light vehicles, motorcycles, cycles and pedestrians at one side.




  1. ^ ImageShack® - Online Photo and Video Hosting. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  2. ^ "Bhaktivedanta VedaBase: Srimad Bhagavatam 5.19.17-18". 2010-01-04. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
  3. ^ "India fast-tracks work on Jhelum river hydroelectric power project". Retrieved 25 May 2010.

Poonch River

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Poonch River is a river in Jammu and KashmirIndia and Azad Kashmir in Pakistan. It originates in the western foothills of Pir Panjal range, in the areas of Neel-Kanth Gali and Jamian Gali. It is called 'Siran' in this area. It flows to the north west. At first flowing southwards it enters Mangla Lake near Chomukh. The towns of Poonch, Sehra, Tatta Paniand Kotli are situated on the banks of this river. It has two tributaries, Betaar and Suwan.[1]


  1. ^ Negi, Sharad Singh (1991). Himalayan Rivers, Lakes and Glaciers. Indus Publishing. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/88185182612|88185182612 [[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]]Check |isbn= value (help).


Kunhar River

Kunhar River in Naran ValleyKhyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Kunhar River in the Kaghan Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

The Kunhar River (Urduدریائے کنہار‎) also known as Nain Sukh Persian: "eye's repose" is 166 kilometres (103 mi) long river, located primarily in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, northern Pakistan. It is in the Indus River watershed basin.


The river originates from Lulusar Lake, nearly 48 kilometres (30 mi) upstream from Naran Valley. Waters of Dudipat and Saiful MulukLakes

feed the river besides glacial waters from Malka Parbat and other high peaks in the valley. The Kunhar river flows through the entire Kaghan valley,

Jalkhad, the Naran valley, KaghanBalakot, and Garhi Habibullah.

The Kunhar River's confluence with the Jhelum River is outside Muzaffarabad, in the Azad Jammu and Kashmir province, Pakistan.


See also






Neelum River

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Neelum River/دریائے نیلم
Habba Khatoon.jpg
Neelum River at Habba Khatoon mountain Gurais
Region Kashmir
 - left Sind RiverLidder River
 - location Krishansar Lake at SonamargIndia
 - elevation 3,710 m (12,172 ft)
Mouth 34.354869°N 73.468537°E
 - location Jehlum River at Muzaffarabad,Pakistan
 - elevation 750 m (2,461 ft)
Length 245 km (152 mi)
 - average 465 m3/s (16,421 cu ft/s)

The Neelum River (Hindiनीलम नदीUrduدریائے نیلم‎), or Kishanganga (Sanskrit/Hindiकृष्णगंगा नदीUrduکِشڻ گنگا ندی‎), is a river in the Kashmir region of India and Pakistan.


The Neelam River originates from Krishansar Lake[1] in the vicinity of Sonamarg and runs northwards to Badoab village where it meets a tributory from the Dras side and runs westwards along the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir. It is fed by many glacial tributory streams on its way. It enters Pakistan Occupied Kashmir in the Gurais sector of the Line of Control, and then runs west until it meets the Jhelum River north of Muzzafarabad.[2][3] The Neelum River is 245 kilometers long, it covers 50 kilometers in Jammu and Kashmir and the remaining 195 kilometers in Azad Kashmir.

Variety of fishes

Krishansar Lake, the source of Neelum River

There are different kinds of fishes found in abundance in the Neelum River. As the river almost entirely runs across the Line of Control, being the main cause for Kashmir conflict there is a feeling of uncertainty among the inhabitants, many of them have emigrated[4] to safer places, which has left the river banks scarcely populous and kept the river in perfect conditions for growth of fish. The most famous among the different variety of fishes found in Neelum River are:[5]

Neelum Valley[edit source | editbeta]

The Neelum Valley is a Himalayan gorge in Gilgit–Baltistan of Pakistan, along which the Neelum River flows. This green and fertile valley is 250 km in length and stretches its way from Muzaffarabad all the way to Athmuqam and beyond to Taobutt. It is one of the most attractive tourists places, like Swat and Chetral, but due to poor road system is yet veiled to the outside world. This area was badly affected by the 2005 earthquake and was cut off from the outside world as the roads and paths were filled with rubble. Now construction of an international standard road is in progress. Neelum has had a great importance before and after the partition of India due to its beauty.Sharada Peeth was once most advanced and international standard institution during the Hindu and Buddhist era.[citation needed]

It is named after the river Neelum, which is famous for its crystal bluish water and that is the reason for its name Neelum. Some traditionalists[who?] say that the valley is named after a precious stone neelum (sapphire). It enters in the Neelum from Taobutt and continues its journey through narrows and mountains different streams in the way add its strength and finely tributes into river Jehlum at a spot at Domail in Muzaffarabad.

There are two entrances for Neelum valley, one Neelum Road by Muzaffarabad and the other by Kaghan the Julkhad Road. Generally Neelum valley starts just after Muzaffarabad but in political division the area from Muzaffarabad to Chelhana is named Kotla valley in election division. District Neelum starts from Chelhana and goes to Taobutt. The valley is famous for its lush greenery, fir forests, slop hills and waterfalls. Specially in summer a large number of tourists visit the valley. Azad jummu and Kashmir tourism department and Forest Division Keren constructed Guest Houses in most important points. Good strandard hotels are also available in almost places.

Shardadesh is a name for the drainage basin of the Neelum River. The name is a form of Saraswati, the goddess of knowledgemusic and the arts in Hinduism.


In the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, the construction work on the 330 MW Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant project has started, after being defunct for eighteen years.[6][7]Recently, the project was awarded to Hindustan Construction Company (HCC) with a timeline of seven years. The 330 MW Kishanganga hydro-electric power project involves damming of Kishanganga or Neelam River and the proposed 37 metre reservoir will submerge some parts of the Gurez valley of Kashmir[8] The water of Kishen Ganga River will be diverted through a 24 kilometre tunnel dug through the mountains to Bandipore where it will join the Wular Lake and then Jhelum River.[8]

Similarly, Pakistan is constructing the 969 MW Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant; the country has placed the project in the hands of a Chinese consortium.[6] Pakistan claims that the Indian dam project will violate the Indus Waters Treaty and has pursued formal arbitration proceedings against India over the matter.[9][10]

See also[edit source | editbeta]


  1. ^ Majid Hussain (1998). Geography of Jammu and Kashmir. Rajesh Publications, 1998. p. 13–. ISBN 9788185891163. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  2. ^ "The Neelam Plan"Rediff. Retrieved 2009–11–15.
  3. ^ "Basic Facts about the Kishenganga Dam ProjectK". Kashmir Environmental Watch Association. Retrieved 2009–11–15.
  4. ^ "Kashmiri refugees: facts issues and the future ahead". Retrieved 2012-02-21.
  5. ^ "Gippsland Aquaculture Industry Network-Gain". Retrieved 2012-02-22.
  6. a b "Kishen Ganga power project to be revived". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 2009–11–15.
  7. ^ "Welcome to Kishenganga Project". NHPC Limited. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  8. a b "Kishen Ganga project to begin soon"The Indian Express. Retrieved 2009–11–15.
  9. ^ Pakistan Seeks Resolution of India Water Dispute. By TOM WRIGHT in Lahore, Pakistan, and AMOL SHARMA in New Delhi. Wall Street Journal. 20 May 2010.
  10. ^ "Hague Court asks India to stop Kishanganga project". The International News. 25 September 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2011.


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