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Hazrat Khwaja Ghulam Fareed URS celebration beginning .  -  Three-days Ceremonies Of URS Of The Famous Saint And Sufi Poet Of the South Punjab Hazrat Khwaja Ghulam Fareed will be Starting  From 6th February.KFF is The Host Of The Celebration Ceremony.  Diwan-e- Fareed new research, which the Author is Mr. Mujahid Jatoi are celebration ceremony will be held on February 7th in Qaser-e-Fareed. KFF is the  host of the celebration ceremony. The Delegation Of Khwaja Farid College Rahim Yar Khan, Visit The Kot Mithan. A Delegation Of The Professors And Lecturers In The Leadership Of Mr. Chaudhry Mohammad Akram Principal Khwaja Fareed College Rahim Yar Khan Visited The Kot Mithan. After Darbar –e-Fareed Thay Also Visit The Khawaja Fareed Museum And Then They Attended a Ceremony Arranged by KFF, in Qaser-e-Fareed.  



Shimshal شمشال (in Urdu) is a village located in Gojal, Hunza–Nagar District, in the Pakistan-administered Gilgit–Baltistan formerly known as Northern Areas of Pakistan. It lies at an altitude of 3,100 m above sea level, and is the highest settlement in Hunza Valley of Pakistan. It is the bordering village that connects Gilgit-Baltistan province of Pakistan with China. The total area of Shimshal is 3,800 km2 and there are around two thousand inhabitants with a total of two hundred and forty households. Shimshal is made up of four major hamlets; Farmanabad, Ami


nabad, Center Shimshal and Khizarabad. Farmanabad is a new settlement that comes first on reaching Shimshal. Aminabad is announced by vast fields of stones hemmed in by dry stone walls, and fortress-like houses of stone and mud. As you approach Shimshal look for a glimpse of Odver Sar (6,303m) also known as Shimshal Whitehorn. Shimshal has hydroelectricity from Odver stream for five months (June–October) of the year (when the water isn't frozen). Non availability of electricity for seven months is a big problem of the local community because during this period they have to rely on kerosene oil, firewood, solar plates and compressed natural gas in cylinders as an alternative .

The village was inaccessible by motor road until October 2003, when a new road from the Karakoram Highway at Passu was constructed. The construction of non-metallic Jeep-able road started in 1985 and completed in 2003. Eighteen (1985-2003) of handwork finally become successful because of hard work, dedication and self-help. It become possible to connect Shimshal with rest of the world by mutual cooperation of the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme, Government of Pakistan and the local community. It now takes maximum three hours to reach Shimshal

 by jeep from Passu. Self-help or Nomus ( in local Wakhi language) is the major factor for infrastructure development in Shimshal. Brock University Canada has recently launched a new project A Critical Ethnography of the Shimshal Road.

Shimshalis use numerous seasonal mountain grasslands, located several days walk from the village, to sustain herds of yaks, goats, and sheep. The area was founded by Mamo Singh and his wife named Khudija.They have the only son Sher. According to Shimshal's history and tradition, their first child won the local polo game from Kargiz (Chinese) riding yak while the Chinese rode horses.The Shimshal River comes from this area and then transforms the shape of Hunza River, which mixes with the Indus River below the capital city Gilgit.

The people of Shimshal are Wakhi and they speak the Wakhi language. They belong to the Ismaili sect of Shia Islam.
The entire community is the follower of Aga Khan as their 49th spiritual leader who is the direct descendant of 


Muhammad. The Ismaili Community

Two books about Shimshal, "Shimshal" and "Women of Shimshal" have been written by Pam Henson of the Shimshal Trust, based on her teaching and living experiences in Shimshal. She is a teacher from Newzealnd who had spent some good times in Shimshal. Detail about her books are available on Shimshal Trust website. شمشال بے مثال written by مستنصر حسسیں تارڑ Mustenssir Hussain Tarrer is one of the best books on Shimshal in Urdu.


  • 1 Shimshal Pass (Ṣ̌ʉw Wʉrt)
  • 2 Shimshal Nature Trust
  • 3 Nomus(Self-Help Village Development Programme)
  • 4 Samina Baig from Shimshal First Pakistani woman to scale Mount Everest]
  • 5 Tourism in Shimshal

Tourism in Shimshal



Shimshal valley has its largest adventure area in Hunza and is a major attraction for tourists. Its mountains like Destaghil Sar (7,885m), Shimshal White Horn( 6,303m) Minglik Sar(6,150m), Lupghar Sar(7200m),Yazghail Sar(6000m), Kunjut Sar and others are well known among mountaineers. Gigantic glaciers include Malangudhi, Yazghail, Khurdopin5800m , Braldu, Odver, Ver Zharav, and main passes are Chafchingoal, Khurdopin, Mai Dur, Braldu, Boi Sam and others. Shimshalis are to Pakistan as Sherpas are to Nepal. More than twenty well known mountaineers from this valley have made Pakistan proud in the field of tourism. Some people call it " The Valley of Mountaineers". Some of them are Rajab Shah, Mehrban Shah, Shambi Khan,Aziz Ullah, Qudrat Ali, Sarwar Ali, Shaheen Baig, Ali Mussa, Amr Uddin Shah, Amin Ullah Baig, Sajjad Karim, Aziz 

Baig, Qurban Muhammad, Tafat Shah, Farhad Khan, Wahab Ali Shah, Fazl Ali, Hasil Shah,Yousaf Khan, Muhammad Ullah, Ezat Ullah, Muhammad Bari, Shafa 

Ali, Muhammad Abdul,Saeed Ahmed,Jalal Uddin and others. Rajab Shah has the distinction of scaling all five peaks more than eight thousand meters located in Pakistan


Rajab Shah and Mehrban Shah have received Presidential Award for Pride of Performance in recognition of their extra ordinary achievement in the field of tourism and mountaineering.


Hispar River

The Hispar River forms from the melt water of the Hispar Glacier - a 49 kilometer-long glacier in the Northern Areas of Pakistan's Karakoram Mountains. The Hispar Glacier and river both flow northwest, passing through Hispar, Hopar and Nagar (Nagir) villages until the confluence with the Hunza River in the Hunza Valley. Road conditions are spectacular at best, treacherous at worst. In August 2006, a bridge below Hispar village was condemned, and the Hunza River washed the road away at the confluence, eliminating all vehicular access to the entire valley for some months.

Naltar lake

Stream from mountains Naltarbala.jpg

There is a lake in the Naltar valley known as 'Bashkiri Lake' at a distance of 13 kilometers (08 mi) from Naltar Bala. The road from village to the lake is nonmetallic and narrow

 alongside a stream throughout this road coming from the mountains. In winter it is almost impossible to reach the lake through any vehicle due to the snow (10 to 15 feet high) on the road.


Naltar Valley

Naltar is a valley near Gilgit and Hunza in the Gilgit–Baltistan region of Pakistan. Naltar is 40 km (25 mi) from Gilgit and can be reached by jeeps. Naltar is a forested (pine) village known for its wildlife and magnificent mountain scenery. Now the communication is available by the efforts of Pakistan army signal corps (SCO special communication organization). There are ski lifts under the 'Ski Federation of Pakistan'. Transport is available from Gilgit to Naltar but during a specific time after that own arrangement.

There is a base camp of 'Pakistan Air Force' at Naltar. Ski Competitions are held at Naltar under the supervision of PAF. Naltar Bala and Naltar Pine are two villages of Naltar valley. N.Pine Is at a distance of 34 kilometers (21 mi) and Naltar Bala at 40 kilometers (25 mi) from Gilgit. There is a main village known as Nomal between Naltar valley and Gilgit. A road from Nomal goes to 'The Silk Route' To China. Recently government constructed an 18 MW hydropower project near Naltar Pine to fulfill the power requirement of the area as well as Gilgit. The road from Gilgit to Naltar Pine is metalled and is non-metalled from Naltar Pine to Naltar Bala.

Education rate in this valley is too much poor. A government high school and an NLI public school is there at Naltar Bala and a middle school for girls is under construction.

Chapursan River

  • To the east of the pass is Chapursanriver that flows southeast and joins Hunza riverriver at Khudabad at Karakorum HighwayMisgar River
  • The Chapursan River begins in the area of the Chilanji pass and the slopes of Kampiri Diwar peak. It flows to the east and joins Khunjerab River near Khuda Abad.


Misgar River

The Misgar River begins in the slopes of the mountains between Mintaka and the Kilik pass on the northern boundary of Gilgit. It flows to the south east and ends when
  • The Misgar River begins in the slopes of the mountains between Mintaka and the Kilik pass on the northern boundary of Gilgit. It flows to the south east and ends when it empties into the Khunjerab River.

Khunjerab River

  • The Khunjerab River begins in the snow clad mountains and glaciers in the north and south of Khunjerab pass. The river flows to the west then turns southward. It ends when it flows into the Hunza River.

Ishkuman River

  • The Ishkuman River begins at Ishkuman where many streams meet. The streams come from the north western boundaries of Gilgit in the Hindu Kush range of mountains. At Ishkuman these streams join to make the Ishkuman River which flows south, passing through Chitarkhand. It ends where it joins into the Ghizar River at Gakooch.

Yasin River

  • The Yasin River begins in the glaciers near Darkot, and passes in to the north western frontiers of Gilgit and flows south to the join the Ghizar River near Gupis.


Satpara Stream

Satpara Stream or Satpura Cho[1] is a small tributary of the Indus River in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, which originates from the Deosai Plains and feeds into the Satpara Lake.


  1. ^ Geonames database

Shigar River

Shigar River (Urdu: دریائے شگر‎) is located in Baltistan, Northern Areas, Pakistan. The Shigar River is formed from the melt water of the Baltoro Glacier and Biafo Glacier. It flows through the Shigar Valley. The river is tributary to Indus River and meets the Indus in Skardu Valley.

Braldu River

The Braldu River (Urdu: برالڑو ندی) flows in the Skardu District of Gilgit Baltistan in Pakistan. The Braldu River joins the Basha Basna River, and together they form the Shigar River, which is a tributary of the Indus River.[1][2]



Baltoro glacier - braldu river.jpg


The Braldu River is a 78 kilometres (48 mi) long river, that originates from the Baltoro Glacier[1] and flows 25 kilometres (16 mi) to the west where it receives melt waters from the Biafo Glacier.[1] The Baltoro Glacier and the Biafo Glacier are among the largest glaciers outside the polar regions. The Baltoro Glacier give rise to the four Eight-thousanders mountain peaks, among them is the K2 28,251 ft (8,611 metres), the second highest mountain peak of the world.[3] The Biafo Glacier holds the Snow Lake, which is 61 mile (100 km) river of ice, it is among the world's longest continuous glacier systems outside of the polar regions.[4]

The Braldu River flows almost eastwards, entirely in the Skardu District of Baltistan and forms the Braldu Valley. The most remote settlement in the valley is the village of Askole, situated at the right bank of the Braldu River. Askole serves as the base camp for mountaineering expeditions and trekking to the various glaciers in this Karakoram Range.[5] Many glacier fed streams joins the Braldu River in the Braldu Valley.

The Braldu River flows through the towns of Korphe, Shamang, Barjand, Kharwa, Niyil and Tingstun. It merges with the Basha Basna River 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) before Tingstun to form the Shigar River at the end of the Braldu Valley.[2][6] The Basha Basna River originates from the Chogo Lungma and the Sokha Glaciers, flows southeastwards. The Shigar River joins the Indus River at Skardu, 48 kilometres (30 mi) from the merger of the Braldu River and the Basha Basna River.[2]


The Braldu River is considered to be a super extreme whitewater river. It provides great scope for kayaking, which is practised during the summer from June to August. The first attempt to kayak the river was made in 1978 by a British expedition led by Mike Jones. Jones lost his life trying to rescue a team mate, for which he was awarded the Queen's Gallantry Medal (QGM).[7][8]


  1. ^ a b c Mohan C. Bhandari (2006). Solving Kashmir. Lancer Publishers, 2006. p. -15,16. ISBN 978-81-7062-125-6. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  2. ^ a b c C. R. Beesley (2004). Pakistan: minerals, mountains & majesty. Lapis International, 2004. p. -86, 87. ISBN 978-0-9715371-4-9. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  3. ^ "BROAD PEAK AND CHOGOLISA, 1957". himalayanclub. Retrieved 2012-09-13.
  4. ^ David Mazel (1994). Mountaineering Women: Stories by Early Climbers. Texas A&M University Press, 1994. p. -103. ISBN 978-0-89096-617-4. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  5. ^ Appalachian Mountain Club (1994). Appalachia, Volume 50. Appalachian Mountain Club, 1994. p. -47. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  6. ^ John Sinkankas (1989). Emerald and other beryls. Geoscience Press, 1989. p. -488. ISBN 978-0-945005-03-2. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  7. ^ Jamie Benidickson (1997). Idleness, Water, and a Canoe: Reflections on Paddling for Pleasure. University of Toronto Press, 1997. p. -108. ISBN 978-0-8020-7910-7. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  8. ^ "Baillie’s proud canoeing legacy". Retrieved 2012-08-31.

Shyok River

The Shyok River flows through northern Ladakh in India and the Northern Areas of Pakistan (Ghangche District), spanning some 550 km (340 mi).

The Shyok River, a tributary of the Indus River, originates from the Rimo Glacier, one of the tongues of Siachen Glacier. The river widens at the confluence with the Nubra River. T

he alignment of the Shyok river is very unusual, originating from the Rimo glacier, it flows in a southeasternly direction and joining the Pangong range, it takes a northwestern turn, flowing parallel to its previous path. The Shyok flows in a wide valley, suddenly entering a narrow gorge after Chalunka, continuing through Turtuk and Tyakshi before crossing into Pakistan. The Shyok joins the Indus at Keris, to the east of the town of Skardu.[1][2]

The Nubra river, originating from the Siachen glacier, also behaves like the Shyok. Before Tirit the SE flowing river Nubra 


takes a NW turn on meeting the river Shyok. The similarity in the courses of these two important rivers probably indicates a series of paleo fault lines trending NW-SE in delimiting the upper courses of the rivers. The importance of the Indus and the Shyok rivers is in the deposition of the thick Quaternary sediments—a treasure trove for geology researchers.


Shyok valley

The Shyok Valley is the valley of the Shyok River situated in Ladakh. The valley is close to the Nubra Valley.

Khardung La on the Ladakh Range lies north of Leh and is the gateway to the Shyok and Nubra valleys. The Siachen Glacier lies partway up the latter valley.


  • The Chang Chen Mo River is formed in the vicinity of Pamzal in Changchinmo plains of Ladakh and flows westward. It ends when it empties into the Shyok River.[citation needed]
  • The Galwan River is in the southern part of Aksai Chin, Galwan originates in the area of Samzungling and flowing to the west joins the Shyok River.[citation needed]
  • The Nubra River is a tributary of the Shyok River, which flows into the Indus River. It flows in the Ladakh area of Jammu and Kashmir.[citation needed]
  • The Saltoro River begins in the skirts of the Saltoro Kangri peak ridge and flows to the southwest. Another branch starts from the slopes of the Masherbroom peak and flows to the south to join Saltoro. In the end this river empties into Shyok River near the coldest part of Pakistan the town of Khaplu.[citation needed]



  1. ^ Aerial view of river junction
  2. ^ Bennett-Jones, Owen; Brown, Lindsay; Mock, John (1 September 2004). Pakistan and the Karakoram Highway. Lonely Planet Regional Guides (6th Revised ed.). Lonely Planet Publications. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-86442-709-0. Retrieved 2009-08-26.


Saltoro River

Saltoro River is a tributary river of Shyok River in the Siachen Region. Its main source is Bilafond Glacier.[1] Before falling into Shyok river, the water of Saltoro river first drains into Hushe river at Haldi village which finally falls in Shyok.[2]


  1. ^ K.S. Gulia (2 September 2007). Discovering Himalaya : Tourism of Himalaya Region. Isha Books. p. 44. ISBN 978-8182054103. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  2. ^ Sharad Singh Negi (1 April 2002). Himalayan Rivers, Lakes and Glaciers. Indus Publishing Company. p. 119. ISBN 978-8185182612. Retrieved 26 April 2012.


Hushe River

The Hushe River is a tributary river to the Shyok River which itself is tributary to the Indus River. The main source of the Hushe River is the Gondogoro Glacier. Some streams also flow from other glaciers of the Hushe valley. The Hushe river joins with Saltoro River at Haldi village before joining the Shyok River. Both the Hushe and Saltoro rivers join the Shyok river at the Tsa thang Ghursa village.[1]


  1. ^ "The Hushe River". Retrieved 2013-09-01.


Nubra Valley

Nubra (Tibetan : ལྡུམ་ར; Wylie : ldum ra; English : Nubra) is a tri-armed valley located to the north east of Ladakh valley. Diskit the capital of Nubra is about 150 km north from Leh town, the capital of Ladakh district, India. Local scholars say that its original name was Ldumra (the valley of flowers). The Shyok River meets the Nubra or Siachan River to form a large valley that separates the Ladakh and Karakoram Ranges. The Shyok river is a tributary of the Indus river. The average altitude of the valley is about 10,000 ft. i.e. 3048 metres above the sea level. The common way to access this valley is to travel over the Khardung La pass from Leh town. Non-locals require an Inner Line Permit (obtainable in DC office, Leh town) to enter Nubra.



Like the rest of the Tibetan Plateau, Nubra is a high altitude cold desert with rare precipitation and scant vegetation except along river beds. The villages are irrigated and fertile, producing wheat, barley, peas, mustard and a variety of fruits and nuts, including blood apples, walnuts, apricots and even a few almond trees. Most of the Nubra Valley is inhabited by Nubra dialect or Nubra Skat speakers. The majority are Buddhists. In the western or lowest altitude end of Nubra Valley near the Line of Control i.e. the Indo-Pak border, along the Shyok River, the inhabitants are Balti of Gilgit-Baltistan, who speak Balti, and are Shia and Sufia Nurbakhshia Muslims.

Siachen Glacier lies to the north of the valley. The Sasser Pass and the famous Karakoram Pass lie to the northwest of the valley and connect Nubra with Uyghur (Mandarin : Xinjiang). Previously there was much trade passing through the area with western China's Xinjiang and Central Asia.


Diskit town in the valley have become the congregation centre for people of the region. Diskit is the headquarters of the Nubra Valley and thus has lot of government offices witcf acilities. It is also connected by road with Leh. The 32 metre Maitreya Buddha statue is the landmark of Nubra Valley and is maintained by the Diskit Monastery.

Along the Nubra or Siachan River lie the villages of Sumur, Kyagar (called Tiger by the Indian Army), Tirith, Panamik, Turtuk and many others. Samstanling monastery is betw

een Kyagar and Sumur villages, and Panamik is noted for its hot springs. Across the Nubra or Siachan River at Panamik, is the isolated Ensa Gompa.

On the Shyok (pronounced Shayok) River, the main village, Diskit, is home to the dramatically positioned Diskit Monastery. Hundar was the capital of the erstwhile Nubra kingdom in the 17th century, and is home to the Chamba Gompa. Between Hundar and Diskit lie several kilometres of sand dunes, and (two-humped) bactrian camels graze in the neighbouring "forests" of seabuckthorn. Non-locals are not allowed below Hundar village into the Balti area, as it is a border area. The beautiful village of Baigdandu is also located in this area. There is a marked presence of people with startling blue eyes, auburn hair and rosy cheeks as against the typical mongoloid features of the Ladakhis. Local lore has it that they were a Greek tribe who came in search of Jesus Christ's tomb and eventually settled here. Baigdandu is also known for the goats that give you the famous Pashmina shawls.

The main road access to the Nubra Valley is over Khardung La pass which is open throughout the year. Its status as the highest motorable road in the world is no longer accepted by most authorities. An alternative route, opened in 2008, crosses the Wari La from Sakti, to the east of Khardung La, connecting to the main Nubra road system via Agham and Khalsar along the Shyok River. There are also trekkable passes over the Ladakh Range from the Indus Valley at various points. Routes from Nubra to Baltistan and Yarkand, though historically important, have been closed since 1947 and 1950 respectively.

The valley was open for tourists till Hunder (the land of sand dunes) until 2010. The region beyond Hunder gives way to a greener region of Ladakh because of its lower altitude. The village of Turtuk which was unseen by tourists till 2010 is a virgin destination for people who seek peace and an interaction with a tribal community of Ladakh. The village is stuffed with apricot trees and children. The local tribe, Balti, follows its age old customs in their lifestyle and speak a language which is just spoken and not written. For tourists Turtuk offers serene camping sites with environment friendly infrastructure.

Sand Dunes of Nubra valley

Education[edit source | editbeta]

The valley has been secluded as has been most of the exterior parts of Ladakh. Almost all of the region has been facing problems to get good quality education. There have been initiatives in the past by the government but extreme weather conditions and vicinity to the borders have been a major hurdle in implementing a solid education base. There is also migration of the population that gets exposed to the big cities of India and hence the people do not get benefitted out of their local learned population. There are very few Non-Government organizations active in Nubra region. A national NGO karmabhoomi works for the education and employment generation in the Turtuk region with an intention to cover the whole of Ladakh in future.

Nubra River[edit source | editbeta]

35 metre statue of Maitreya Buddha facing down the Shyok River towards Pakistan.
Shyok watershed

The Nubra River is a tributary of the Shyok River, which flows through the Nubra region of Ladakh, into the Indus River to the east of Skardu, Pakistan. The Siachen Glacier melts into this river.

Gallery[edit source | editbeta]


Suru River (Indus)

The Suru River (Urdu: سرو دریا), a tributary of Indus River,[1] is a river in the Kargil district of Ladakh region, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.



Geography[edit source | editbeta]

The Suru River is a 185 kilometres (115 mi) long river, that originates from the Panzella glacier which lies at Pensi La pass near the Drang Drung Glacier. The Drang Drung Glacier also gives rise to the Stod River which flows down in the opposite direction from the Suru. The source of the Suru River lies 142 kilometres (88 mi) south of Kargil town, and 79 kilometres (49 mi) north from Zanskar. Srinagar, the capital of Jammu and Kashmir lies 331 kilometres (206 mi) to the west.[citation needed] The Suru River forms the western and northern boundary of the Zanskar Range.[2] The river flows westwards, along with the Kargil-Zanaskar Road, from its source and forms the Suru valley, which is towered by the massif of Nun Kun mountain. It drains the Nun Kun mountain massif of the Zanskar Range in the Suru valley, and is joined by a tributary “Shafat Nala“ at the pastures of Gulmatango. This stream originates from the Shafat Glacier.[3] The Suru River then flows northwards through a deep, narrow gorge to Kargil town, where it is fed by the Botkul River which originates from the glacier of the same name.[1] The Dras River, fed by the Shingo River, joins the Suru River at Kharul, 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) north of Kargil town.[4] The Suru River then enters the Pakistani Administered Kashmir 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) ahead from the point of merger of Dras and Suru rivers through Post 43 and Post 44 of India and Pakistan respectively and merges with the Indus River at Nurla.[1][2]

Suru River

The river flows entirely within the jurisdiction of Kargil district. It flows through the towns of Tongul, Suru, Grantung, Goma and Kharul. Kargil town is the largest city situated on the banks of the Suru River, also being the second largest city in the Ladakh region after Leh. A branch of the anicient Silk Road ran alongside the Suru River, connecting Kargil and Skardu. The road is now closed due to the Line of Control.[5][6]

The Suru River has extensive possibilities for rafting and it is practised during the summer. The Suru Valley is the starting point for rafting trips, and it also provides a base for mountaineering expeditions to the Nun Kun mountain massif.[7] The agriculture in Ladakh is scarce due to the dry climate, and is restricted to the river valleys. The Suru valley, formed by the catchment of the Suru River, receives irrigation through the canals of the Suru River. The main crops grown in the valley include barley, buckwheat, turnips and mustard.[8]

See also[edit source | editbeta]

References[edit source | editbeta]

  1. ^ a b c S. S. Negi (2002). Cold Deserts of India. Indus Publishing, 2002. p. -13. ISBN 9788173871276. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  2. ^ a b "Rivers of Ladakh". Retrieved 2012-08-29.
  3. ^ Prem Singh Jina (1996). Ladakh: The Land and the People. Indus Publishing, 1996. p. -16. ISBN 9788173870576. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  4. ^ Omacanda Hāṇḍā (2001). Buddhist Western Himalaya: A politico-religious history. Indus Publishing, 2001. p. -67. ISBN 9788173871245. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  5. ^ "Kargil the Suru valley". Retrieved 2012-08-29.
  6. ^ Sanjeev Kumar Bhasin (2006). Amazing Land Ladakh: Places, People, and Culture. Indus Publishing, 2006. p. -28. ISBN 9788173871863. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  7. ^ Yogendra Bali, R. S. Somi (2005). Incredible Himalayas: Environment, Culture, Tourism, and Adventure. Indus Publishing, 2005. p. -143. ISBN 9788173871795. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  8. ^ Indu Ramchandani (2000). Students' Britannica India, Volumes 1-5. Popular Prakashan, 2000. p. -126. ISBN 9780852297605. Retrieved 29 August 2012.


Dras River


Dras River

Geography[edit source | editbeta]

The Dras River is 86 km (53 mi) long and flows entirely in the Dras Valley. Its source lies in the Machoi Glacier near Zojila Pass, the gateway to Ladakh, 26 km (16 mi) east of Sonamarg and 120 km (75 mi) east of Srinagar, the capital of Jammu and Kashmir.[1][2] The Machoi Glacier is also the source of the Sind River, which flows through the neighbouring Kashmir Valley in the opposite direction to the Dras River.[3] The Dras River flows northeast, fed by many glacial streams. NH 1D, a national highway connecting Srinagar with Leh, runs parallel to the river. The river forms the Dras Valley at Dras,[2] where it is joined by two tributaries, the Mashko Nala and Gamru Nala, which originate in the glaciers of Mashko Valley.[3] In the Dras Valley, the road connecting Dras and Gurais runs parallel to the river.

The confluence of Dras (left) and Shingo Rivers

The Shingo River joins the Dras River at Kharbu, and doubles the flow of the river. The Shingo River is a confluent of the Marpo River and the Nakpo River, both of which originate in Pakistani-Administered Kashmir.[2][4] The Dras River joins the Suru River at Kharul, 7 km (4.3 mi) north of the town of Kargil.[2] The Suru River is a left tributary of the Indus River.[5] It originates from the Panzella glacier near Pensi La, flows northwards and merges with the Indus River at Nurla 5 km (3.1 mi) below its confluence with the Dras River, after entering Pakistani-Administered Kashmir at Post 43 and Post 44 of India and Pakistan respectively.[6]

The Dras River flows through the towns of Matayan, Kharbu and Kakshar. The largest settlement on its banks is Dras, which is the second coldest inhabited place in the world after Siberia.[7] The water flow of the river increases during the late summer, due to the heavy melting of glaciers.[8


Country India
State Jammu and Kashmir
Region Ladakh
District Kargil
Source 34°16′20″N 75°31′47″E / 34.272303°N 75.529832°E / 34.272303; 75.529832Coordinates: 34°16′20″N 75°31′47″E / 34.272303°N 75.529832°E / 34.272303; 75.529832
- location Machoi Glacier near Zojila
- elevation 4,400 m (14,436 ft)
Mouth 34°35′34″N 76°07′20″E / 34.592685°N 76.122271°E / 34.592685; 76.122271
- location Suru River at Kharul Kargil
- elevation 3,618 m (11,870 ft)
Length 86 km (53 mi)
- average 212 m3/s (7,487 cu ft/s)

References[edit source | editbeta]

  1. ^ "Kargil the Suru valley". Retrieved 2012-08-29.
  2. ^ a b c d Omacanda Hāṇḍā (2001). Buddhist Western Himalaya: A politico-religious history. Indus Publishing, 2001. p. -67. ISBN 9788173871245. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  3. ^ a b Harish Kapadia (1999). Across Peaks & Passes in Ladakh, Zanskar & East Karakoram. Indus Publishing, 1999. p. -226. ISBN 9788173871009. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
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  5. ^ S. S. Negi (2002). Cold Deserts of India. Indus Publishing, 2002. p. -13. ISBN 9788173871276. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  6. ^ "Rivers of Ladakh". Retrieved 2012-08-29.
  7. ^ M.S. Kohli (2004). Mountains of India: Tourism, Adventure, Pilgrimage. Indus Publishing, 2004. p. -124. ISBN 9788173871351. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
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Shingo River

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Shingo river (blue) meeting the Dras river in Dalunang

The Shingo River is a tributary of the Suru River, and flows through the Ladakh region. The Shingo river enters India from Pakistan-administered Kashmir and meets the Dras River, coming from Dras. 5km from Kargil the merged river meets the Suru River and again re-enters Pakistani territory.

The Shingo river is clearer than other rivers in Ladakh because it is formed from melting ice.

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