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Hazrat Khwaja Ghulam Fareed URS celebration beginning .  -  Three-days Ceremonies Of URS Of The Famous Saint And Sufi Poet Of the South Punjab Hazrat Khwaja Ghulam Fareed will be Starting  From 6th February.KFF is The Host Of The Celebration Ceremony.  Diwan-e- Fareed new research, which the Author is Mr. Mujahid Jatoi are celebration ceremony will be held on February 7th in Qaser-e-Fareed. KFF is the  host of the celebration ceremony. The Delegation Of Khwaja Farid College Rahim Yar Khan, Visit The Kot Mithan. A Delegation Of The Professors And Lecturers In The Leadership Of Mr. Chaudhry Mohammad Akram Principal Khwaja Fareed College Rahim Yar Khan Visited The Kot Mithan. After Darbar –e-Fareed Thay Also Visit The Khawaja Fareed Museum And Then They Attended a Ceremony Arranged by KFF, in Qaser-e-Fareed.  

 

Tawi River

 
Tawi River, Jammu

Tawi is a river that flows through the city of Jammu. Tawi river is also considered sacred and holy, as is generally the case with most rivers in India.

Origin from Kali Kundi glacier

Tawi river originates from the lapse of Kali Kundi glacier and adjoining area southwest of Bhadarwah in Doda District. Its catchment is delineated by latitude 32°35'-33°5'N and longitude 74°35'-75°45'E. The catchment area of the river up to Indian border (Jammu) is 2168 km² and falls in the districts of JammuUdhampur and a small part of Doda. Elevation in the catchment varies between 400 and 4000 m.

The flow of water in the river has been decreasing in recent years as the source glacier (Kali Kundi glacier) has been retreating.

Mythological views

It is a belief of the Hindus of Jammu city that the river was brought to Jammu by 'Raja Pehar Devta' to cure his father & was given the throne of Jammu City & was declared as 'Raja', i.e. KING of JAMMU with the blessings of 'BAWE WALI SHRI MATA KALI JI'. Most Hindus of Jammu city at present perform 'MUNDAN' ceremony of their children at DEV STHAN of 'PEHAR DEVTA JI' also called with love as 'BAWA PEHAR' having HIS sthans (places) at various places in Jammu region but main place at near village KATAL BATAL near Nagrota.

Confluence with Chenab

The length of Tawi river is about 141 km (88 mi). The river in general flows through steep hills on either side excepting the lower reach for about 35 km (22 mi). The river is about 300 m (980 ft) wide at the bridge in Jammu city.After transversing Jammu city, the river crosses into Pakistan's Punjab and joins Chenab river. Tawi is a major left bank tributary of river Chenab.

Passage through Jammu city

Tawi river transverses through and divides Jammu city in two parts. The old Jammu town is located on the hill overlooking river Tawi. The new town is across the river. Tawi river is a major source of drinking water for the old city. Untreated sewage in Jammu pollutes Tawi river as it passes through the city.Four bridges have been built over Tawi river in Jammu city: Two joins Gumat with Vikram Chowk and the other connects Gujjar Nagar with Bahu fort area, third join Bhagwati Nagar with Ratnuchak. A fifth bridge has been built on the river on the city bypass near Nagrota.

Difference from Manawar Tawi River

Tawi river should not be confused with Manawar Tawi which is a small rivulet that originates in Thana Mandi area in Rajouri district, flowis through Chingus, Nowshera and enters Pakistan’s Punjab at Manawar to join Chenab river.

Artificial lake project

Jammu and Kashmir government is in the process of constructing an artificial lake on River Tawi at Bhagwati Nagar in Jammu for promotion of tourism and providing water supply to dry areas of the city. A team of Pakistani officials visited the site and studied the details of the project which will help allay any apprehensions about violation of provisions of Indus Water Treaty[1]

 

References

 

Manawar Tavi River

Manawar Tavi River - This rivulet originates in Thana-Mandi area in the north of Rajouri. Flowing to south through Rajouri, Chingus and Naushera, it enters ...

 

Sutlej

This article is about the river in Punjab. For the Royal navy vessels named after it, see HMS Sutlej. For the river also known as River Sutlej in Hong Kong, see Shek Sheung River.

Sutlej Valley from Rampur c. 1857
The Sutlej is a tributary to the Indus

The Satluj River (alternatively spelled as Sutlej River) (Punjabi: ਸਤਲੁਜ, Hindi: सतलज, Urduدرياۓ ستلُج‎ ) is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroad region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. It is located north of the Vindhya Range, south of the Hindu Kush segment of the Himalayas, and east of the CentralSulaiman Range in Pakistan.

The Sutlej is sometimes known as the Red River. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. Its source is from Lowangko Co, Tibet near Lake Rakshastal in Tibet, near Mount Kailash, and it flows generally west and southwest entering India through the Shipki La pass in Himachal Pradesh. In Pakistan, it waters the ancient and historical former Bahawalpur state. The region to its south and east is arid, and is known as Cholistan a part of Bahawalpur Division. The Sutlej is joined by the Beas River in Hari-Ke-Patan, AmritsarPunjāb, India, and continues southwest into Pakistan to unite with the Chenab River, forming the Panjnad River near Bahawalpur. The Panjnad joins the Indus River at Mithankot. Indus then flows through a gorge near Sukkur, flows through the fertile plains region of Sindh, forming a large delta region between the border of GujaratIndia and Pakistan, and finally terminates in the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Pakistan.

Contrary to the claims of Punjab state in India, a small part of Haryana state in Panchkula district is part of the Sutlej river basin area in addition to Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in India.[1] Thus, Haryana is also a riparian portion of the Indus river basin.

The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India.[2][dead link] There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, for example, the 1,000 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Hydroelectric Dam.[3] There has been a proposal to build a 214-kilometre (133 mi) long heavy freight canal, known as the Sutlej-Yamuna Link (SYL),[4] in India to connect the Sutlej andYamuna rivers. This canal is designed to connect the entire Ganges, which flows to the east coast of the subcontinent, with points west (via Pakistan). When completed, the SYL will allow shipping from India's east coast to the west coast and the Arabian sea, drastically shortening shipping distances and creating important commercial links for north-central India's large population. However, the proposal has met with obstacles and has been referred to the Supreme Court.

History

The Upper Sutluj Valley was once known as the Garuda Valley by the Zhang Zhung, the ancient civilization of western Tibet. The Garuda Valley was the centre of their empire which stretched many miles into the nearby Himalayas. The Zhang Zhung built a towering palace in the Upper Sutlej Valley called Kyunglung, the ruins of which still exist today nearby to the village of Moincer, southwest of Mount Kailash (Mount Ti-se) Eventually the Zhang Zhung were conquered by the Tibetan Empire.

Today, the Sutluj Valley is inhabited by nomadic descendants of the Zhang Zhung who live in tiny villages of as yak herders.

The Sutluj was the main medium of transportation medium for the king of that time. In the early 18th century it was used to transport Devdar woods for Bilaspur and Hamirpur and ather district located on bank of the river Sulej.

Geology

See also: Ghaggar-Hakra River

The Sutlej, along with all of the Punjab rivers, is thought to have drained east into the Ganges prior to 5 mya.[5]

There is substantial geologic evidence to indicate that prior to 1700 BC at the latest, Sutlej was an important tributary of the Ghaggar-Hakra River (possibly through the Saraswati river) rather than the Indus with various authors putting the redirection from 2500-2000 BC.[6][7] or 5000-3000 BC[8] Geologists believe that tectonic activity created elevation changes which redirected the flow of Sutlej from the southeast to the southwest.[citation needed] The mighty Saraswati then began to dry up, causing desertification of Cholistan and the eastern part of the modern state of Sindh. The desertification resulted in abandonment of numerous ancient human settlements along the banks of Saraswati.[citation needed]

There is some evidence that the high rate of erosion caused by the modern Sutlej River has influenced the local faulting and rapidly exhumed rocks above Rampur.[9] This would be similar to, but on a much smaller scale than, the exhumation of rocks by the Indus River in Nanga Parbat, Pakistan. The Sutlej river also exposes a doubled inverted metamorphic gradient.[10]

The source of the Sutlej is just west of Mt. Kailash in western Tibet. This is a roadless area, and was first explored by kayak and raft by Russian and German teams in 2004.[11]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "Dams & barrages location map in India, Central Water Commission, GoI". Retrieved 2012-12-14.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ "Nathpa Jhakri Hydroelectric Power Project, India". power-technology.com. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
  4. ^ http://india.gov.in/sectors/water_resources/sutlej_link.php Sutlej-Yamuna Link
  5. ^ Clift, Peter D.; Blusztajn, Jerzy (December 15, 2005). "Reorganization of the western Himalayan river system after five million years ago". Nature 438 (7070): 1001–1003.doi:10.1038/nature04379PMID 16355221.
  6. ^ Mughal, M. R. Ancient Cholistan. Archaeology and Architecture. Rawalpindi-Lahore-Karachi: Ferozsons 1997, 2004
  7. ^ J. K. Tripathi et al., “Is River Ghaggar, Saraswati? Geochemical Constraints,” Current Science, Vol. 87, No. 8, 25 October 2004
  8. ^ Valdiya, K. S., in Dynamic Geology, Educational monographs published by J. N. Centre for Advanced Studies, Bangalore, University Press (Hyderabad), 1998.
  9. ^ Thiede, Rasmus; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Bookhagen, Bodo; McWilliams, Michael O.; Sobel, Edward R.; and Strecker, Manfred R. (August 2005). "From tectonically to erosionally controlled development of the Himalayan orogen". Geology 33 (8): 689–692. doi:10.1130/G21483AR.1.
  10. ^ Grasemann, Bernhard; Fritz, Harry; Vannay, Jean-Claude (July 1999). "Quantitative kinematic flow analysis from the Main Central Thrust Zone)NW-Himalaya, India: implications for a decelerating strain path and the extrustion of orogenic wedges". Journal of Structural Geology 21 (7): 837–853. doi:10.1016/S0191-8141(99)00077-2.
  11. ^ First descents of the Sutlej in Tibet.

Gomal River

Gomal River (Urduدریائے گومل‎, Pashtoګومل سیند، ګومل دریاب‎, Sanskritगोमती((SARAIKI daryae gumal)) is a river in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Gomal River's headwaters are located south-east of Ghazni.

The springs which form the headwaters of the Gomal's main branch emerge above the fort at Babakarkol in Katawaz, a district inhabited by Ghilzai Pashtuns from the Kharoti andSuleiman Khel clans, in Paktika Province.[1] The Gomal's other branch, the "Second Gomal", joins the main channel about 14 miles below its source.[2] The Gomal flows southeast through eastern Ghilzai country for approximately 110 miles before it merges with the Zhob River, its major tributary, near Khajuri Kach.[3][4] It is about 100 miles from the Zhob River to the Indus River. The river is mentioned in the Rigveda as Gomatī (full of water).

Within Pakistan, the Gomal river surrounds the South Waziristan agency and forms the boundary between Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. From South Waziristan, the river enters the Gomal Valley in the district of Tank, Pakistan at a place known as Girdavi, Murtuza which is inhabited by the Miani tribe. It is mainly here that the water of Gomal is used to cultivate the lands in Gomal Valley through Zam System (Rod Kohi). The river passes then through the Damaan plain in Kulachi Tehsil and later on through Dera Ismail KhanTehsil, It then joins the Indus River 20 miles south of Dera Ismail Khan.[4]

The river lends its name to the Gomal University in Dera Ismail Khan and the like-named Gomal District in Paktika.

There is also a street in E-7, Islamabad called the "Gomal Road".

Notes

         ^ "Natural Geography of Pakistan: 5- Hydrology: 5-1- Rivers: Gomal River" ECO Geoscience Database

  1. ^ MacGregor, Charles Metcalfe (1871) Central Asia, pt. 2: A Contribution Toward the Better Knowledge of the Topography, Ethnology, Resources, and History of Afghanistan Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta, OCLC 48604589 reprinted by Barbican Publishing Co., Petersfield, England, in 1995, p. 308
  2. ^ MacGregor, pp. 308-9
  3. a b Gazetteer of Afghanistan VI (Farah), fourth ed., Calcutta, 1908, p. 238

 

Kundar River

Kundar River is located in BalochistanPakistan.

 

Zhob River

Zhob River (Pashtoژوب سيند‎) is located in Balochistan and Khyber PakhtunkhwaPakistan. The name is Iranian in its origin and etymologically identical to those of the Little Zaband Great Zab rivers in Iraq and the Pamirs. In Pashto languageZhob means "oozing water". The total length of Zhob river is 410 km, and it flows in a north eastern course.

The Zhob River originates in the Kan Metarzai range (Tsari Mehtarazai Pass). It passes about 4 km away from Zhob city. The Zhob River is a tributary of the Gomal River, which it joins near Khajuri Kach.[1] The Gomal River then joins the Indus River 20 miles south of Dera Ismail Khan.

Also river zhob irrigate the land in the northern balochistan with the river gomal so it is very fertile so agriculture is done.Also it lies in some parts of sulaiman range.People there would do agriculture,farming and mining as there would be sui industry and many people would get employment in the industry.

References

^ Zhob District. Khyber.ORG. Publishing Date: April 1, 2005.

 

Kurram Valley

  (Redirected from Kurrum River)
 
Kurram
کرم
كرمه
—  Agency  —
District map of FATA and NWFP - Districts of FATA are shown in orange.
Country Pakistan
Tehsils 2
Government
 • Political agent Riaz Khan Mehsud
Area
 • Total 3,310 km2 (1,280 sq mi)
Population (1998)
 • Total 448,310
 • Density 140/km2 (350/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Main language(s) PashtoUrdu, andEnglish.

Kurram (Urduکرم‎ KurramPashtoكرمه‎ Kurma or KwarmaSanskritक्रुमू Krumu) Tribal Agency is located in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. Geographically, it covers the Kurram Valley (Urduوادی کُرم‎) region which is a valley in the northwestern part of Pakistan, neighboring Afghanistan.[1] Most of the population is Pashtun and the main religion is Islam. Major tribes living in Kurram Agency are TuriBangashOrakzaiZazaiMangalGhilzai and Para Tsamkani.

Until the year 2000, when the old divisions were abolished, the Kurram District used to be part of the Peshawar Division of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan.[citation needed]

Description

The name Kurram comes from the river Kurram (क्रुमू or Krumu in Rgvedic Sanskrit), which flows along the valley. In the north it is surrounded by snow-covered or "white" mountains, the Safed Koh, locally known in Pashto as Speen Ghar, which also forms the natural border with Afghanistan.In Lower Kurram Agency, Alizai is a scenic place where tribes such as the [TURI tribe] and Alizai have natural richness depended upon hills and mountain with ever green forests and fields for growing crops like rice and wheat etc. The Kurram River drains the southern flanks of the Safed Koh mountain range, and enters the Indus plains north of Bannu. It flows west to east and crosses thePaktia Province Afghan-Pakistan border at about 80 km southwest of Jalalabad, and joins the Indus near Isa Khel after a course of more than 320 km (200 mi). The district has an area of 3,310 km2 (1,280 sq mi); the population according to the 1998 census was 448,310.[2] It lies between the Miranzai Valley. It is inhabited by the Bangash and Mangal tribes.

History

The Kurram Valley in ancient times offered the most direct route to Kabul and Gardez. The route crossed a pass 3,439 m (11,283 ft) high, just over 20 km west of modern Parachinar, that was blocked by snow for several months of the year.The valley is highly irrigated, well populated and crowded with small fortified villages, orchards and groves, to which a fine background is afforded by the dark pine forests and alpine snows of the Safed Koh. The beauty and climate of the valley attracted some of the Mughal emperors of Delhi, and the remains exist of a garden planted by Shah Jahan. According to the Gazetteer of Kurram, the richness of the land gradually weaned the Turks from their nomadic life. Sections built villages and settled permanently; they ceased to be Kuchi and became Kothi this abandonment of their nomadic habits by the majority of the resulted, as it was bound to do, in a contraction of the area in effective possession. The upper Kurram plain was safe as their head-quarters, but hills and slopes below the Safed Koh and Mandher over which their graziers had kept an efficient watch, now afforded a menace as a place in which an encroaching tribe could established itself. To guard against this settlements of Mangals and Muqbols or Muqbils were half invited half allowed to push themselves in conditions of vassalage, and on promise to afford a buttress against any enemy aggression. In the lower Kurram, where for climatic reasons candidates for settlements were fewer, the problem was not easily solved. The Chardi Turis seem to have been the first to abandon their nomadic life. As the numbers who went down to graze every year became less,the area under control contracted. Sangroba and Hadmela were left far behind and as the Turis receded the Watizai Zaimushts gradually pushed in, until all that was left was a settlement at and about Alizai. On the western side the Saragallas retained, and still largely retain their habits. They too put in settlements around Biliamin and after much intervening warfare had finally to admit Bangashes brother not as vassals, but for the rest they retain unimpaired the rights on the western bank which they acquired at the time the conquest.

With Chardis this was for from being the course left unsupported by their Kuchis they maintained a precarious existence at Alizai until even then they had to give three-fifths of their land to the Watizai Zaimushts in return for their assistance in a feud they had entered upon with Bilyamin. Consequently the hills and the grazing grounds passed from the Turizun to the Zaimushtzun and as the other Zaimushts section being unopposed had settled themselves on the left bank below Sadda.

In the early 19th century the Kurram Valley was under the government of Kabul, and every five or six years a military expedition was sent to collect the revenue, the soldiers living meanwhile at free quarters on the people. It was not until about 1848 that the Turis were brought directly under the control of Kabul, when a governor was appointed, who established himself in Kurram. The Turis, being Shiah Muslims, never liked the Afghan rule.

During the second Afghan War, when Sir Frederick Roberts advanced by way of the Kurram Valley and the Peiwar Kotal to Kabul, the Turis lent him every assistance in their power, and in consequence their independence was granted them in 1880.

The administration of the Kurram Valley was finally rendered to British authorities, at the request of the Turis themselves, in 1890. Technically it ranked, not as a British district, but as an agency or administered area. Two expeditions in the Kurram Valley also require mention: (1) The Kurram expedition of 1856 under Brigadier-General Sir Neville Chamberlain. The Turis, on the first annexation of the Kohat district by the British, had repeatedly leagued with other tribes to infest the Miranzai valley, harbouring fugitives, encouraging resistance, and frequently attacking Bangash and Khattak villages in the Kohat district. Accordingly, in 1856 British forces numbering 4,896 troops traversed their country, and the tribe entered into engagements for future good conduct. (2) The Kohat-Kurram expedition of 1897 under Colonel W. Hill. During the frontier risings of 1897 the inhabitants of the Kurram valley, chiefly the Massozai section of the Orakzais, were infected by the general excitement, and attacked the British camp at Sadda and other posts. A force of 14,230 British troops traversed the country, and the tribesmen were severely punished. In Lord Curzon's reorganization of the frontier in 1900-1901, British troops were withdrawn from the forts in the Kurram Valley, and were replaced by the Kurram militia, reorganized in two battalions, and chiefly drawn from the Turi tribe.

In recent years the Kurram Valley has once again assumed a strategic position and has been the site of intense Taliban activities. The armed forces of Pakistan extended their major offensive against Al-Qaeda and Taliban elements in FATA dubbed Operation Rah-e-Nijat to Kurram in December 2009.[3]

Archeological findings

Ahmad Hasan Dani has recorded several findings in the North Waziristan area.

The nearest Kharoshti finds are the Kurram Casket inscription of the year 20, recovered from the Kurram Valley.[4]

Administrative divisions

  • Upper Kurram Agency.
  • Lower Kurram Agency.
  • Central Kurram Agency.

 

Parachinar Cantonment

Parachinar is the administrative head quarter of Kurram valley. It has offices of political agent, levy, and Kurram Militia, a part of the Frontier Corps (FC). It is located northwest of the valley. This makes it a part of Upper Kurram. The name of Parachinar comes from 'Para' (Paarha), one of the tribes of the valley and 'Chinar', the maple or pine trees which are found in abundance in the region and Parachinar in particular. The old name of Parchinar was Tutki, when Kurram was a part of Afghanistan. The inhabitants of Tutki were called Tutkiwal and even still, the Afghans call it Tutki. The town (sometimes listed as a city) of Parachinar has a population of around seventy thousand predominantly TuriBangash and zazai.[5]The town has government hospital and many government schools.

Major Towns

  1. Parachinar the headquarter of kurram agency.Bangash and Turi tribes live here.
  2. Sadda the second largest town in the Agency|(Lower Kurram).Predominantly Bangash tribes live there..
  3. Alizai the third largest town in Kurram with Tehsil Alizai

Major Dams

Kurram Agency has a few water reservoirs locally called Dams. Basically these are water supply schemes for domestic purposes. No hydroelectric power is generated in these constructions nor are they used for irrigation purpose.

Malana Dam

Located in the north of Parachinar town this dam was constructed in 1857. Most of the population of Parachinar town depend on this reservoir and the dam is famous among the locals as a picnic resort. A guest house is built here by the Agency administration.

Zeran Dam

Zeran dam is located to the north-east of Prachinar. It is also famous for its scenic beauty. This reservoir served water for Parachinar town before the construction of Malana dam, still the dam contributes much water to a large part of the town Parachinar.

Kot Ragha Dam Malikhel

This is a small size reservoir, largest in the kurram, and was built in Kot Ragha(Malikhel). It contains about 70,000 fishes and has capacity to provide water about 2500 km² area.

Climate

Climate of the valley remains pleasant most of the summer however in winters minimum temperature is usually below freezing point, occasionally mercury drop below -10 degree Celsius.[6] Parachinar is ranked the fourth coldest location in Pakistan[7] by the weather charts website "Climate-Charts" that uses data available from the World Meteorological Organization.
Northern and western heights of the valley receive snow falls in winters. Much of the precipitations occur during spring and summer season. Autumn and winter are usually dry.

Mentioned in Rigveda

In the Rigveda, the Kurrum is mentioned as Krumu.[8]

Taliban Activity

Kurram was a stronghold of the TTP till 2008 when the Pakistani Army ordered a military operation in the Agency to flush out the militants.The military offensive, named Operation Koh-e-Safaid, ended in 2011 with the Lower and Upper Subdivisions of the agency falling back into the Pakistani control. In August, 2012,the Upper and Lower Subdivisions were de-notified as Conflict zones while as a military operation continued in Masozai Area of Central Kurram Agency.[9][10]

Extremist Groups in Kurram Agency

In recent years, Kurram Agency has become increasingly victimized by sectarian violence as tensions grew between the Shiites and Sunnis of the Agency.[11][12]

Footnotes

  1. ^ The Kurram Valley.
  2. ^ Population (FATA, 1998) - Fata.gov.pk
  3. ^ Tariq, Saeed (December 17, 2009). "Operation Rah-e-Nijat, 38 more militants killed."The Pakistan Observer (Pakistan: HURMAT GROUP).
  4. ^ Senarat Paranavitana, Leelananda Prematilleke, Karthigesu Indrapala, and Johanna Engelberta Lohuizen-De Leeuw, Senarat Paranavitana commemoration volume, Vol. 7 (EJ Brill), p. 47.
  5. ^ Al-Jazeera News (April 7, 2007), "Parachinar placed under curfew"Al-Jazeera Online
  6. ^ Bureau report (January 26, 2010), "Weather to remain dry, cold"The News International: Online, retrieved February 26
  7. ^ Casey, Joseph B., "Climates Charts: Parachinar, Pakistan"World Climate Home
  8. ^ Rigvida. "The Northwestern Rivers."The Geography of the Rigveda-Chapter 4.
  9. ^ Dawn. South Waziristan operation: Only Sararogha cleared in three years.
  10. ^ Defence.pk. Operation Koh-e-Sufaid concludes in Kurram Agency.
  11. ^ Dawn. Army ends operation in Central Kurram.
  12. ^ The Guardian: "Pakistan bomb attacks kill at least 57 and injure many more" 27 July 2013

 

Gambila River

 (Redirected from Tochi River)

The Gambila River (Urduدریائے گمبیلا‎), also called the Tochi river (Urduدریائے توچی‎), is located in Bannu DistrictKhyber Pakhtunkhwa province, the former North-West Frontier Province, northern Pakistan.

The source of the river lies in the hills six miles south of the Sufed Koh, the source of the Kurram River, to which it runs parallel and finally joins. It borders North Waziristan while theGomal River borders South Waziristan.

The Gambila is an important river for the inhabitants of the Dawar valley, as it serves to irrigate a large area of land that it runs through, particularly that belonging to the Takhti KhelMarwats, Bakkakhel Wazirs, and Miri and Barakzai Bannuchis.

References

Geography of Bannu and Environs - Kyber.org

 

 

Soan River

 

The Soan river cutting through Pothohar
One of the many gorges of the Soan river

The Soan (Urduسون) (preferred), Swan (Urduسواں), Sawan or Sohan River is a river in PunjabPakistan.

Location and geography

The Soan River is an important stream of the Pothohar region of Pakistan. It drains much of the water of Pothohar. It starts near a small village Bun in the foothills of Patriata and Murree. It provides water to Simly Dam, which is the water reservoir for Islamabad. Near Pharwala Fort it cuts through a high mountain range, a wonderful natural phenomenon called Soan Cut. No stream can cut such a high mountain, which proves that the Soan was there before the formation of this range. And as the mountain rose through millions of years, the stream continued its path by cutting the rising mountain. Ling stream, following a relatively long course through Lehtrar and Kahuta falls in the Soan near Sihala on southern side of Village Gagri/Bhandar.

Islamabad Highway crosses this stream near Sihala where the famous Kak Pul bridge is constructed over it. The Ling Stream joins the Soan river just before the Kak Pul. Another famous stream, the Lai stream, joins this stream near Soan Camp. After following a tortuous path along a big curve, the stream reaches Kalabagh proposed Dam Site close to Pirpiyahi where it falls into the Indus river. There is a famous railway station by the name of Sohan and a beautiful railway bridge very close to it. This relatively small stream is more than 250 kilometers long. Due to its mountainous course and shallow bed, it is hardly used for irrigation purposes. Rohu is the main species of fish in this stream and Kingfisher birds hunt here too.

History

The river might be the Sushoma River of the Rig Veda. According to an important Hindu scripture Srimad Bhagavatam, the Sushoma is one of the many transcendental rivers flowing to the north of the land of Bharata.[1]

References

^ "Bhaktivedanta VedaBase: Srimad Bhagavatam 5.19.17-18". 2010-01-04. Retrieved 2008-01-04.

 

Ling stream

 

Ling stream flows in the Pothohar region of Northern Pakistan. It starts in the foothills of Lhetrar area near Kahuta and flowing and cutting its way through the hilly area it meets theSwaan River near Sehala. The road that joins Islamabad and Azad Kashmir passes it twice. Kingfisher hunts its fish.

Ling stream
Ling beside Sihala.jpg Ling with normal flow.jpg Ling beside DHA.jpg Stony bed of Ling.jpg

 

Haro River

Haro River

Haro is the name of a river that flows through parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab its valley in Abbottabad District in the North West Frontier Province of northern Pakistan, identified with the Rigvedic Arjikiya. Famous Khanpur Dam has been built across this river at Khanpur in the Haripur District.

It is fed by four major tributaries:

  1. The Lora Haro, rising in the Murree Hills around Lora
  2. The Stora Haro, rising in the Galiat Malach hills
  3. Both Lora Haro and Satora Haro merge at Dotara near Jabri
  4. The Neelan, rising in the Nara Hills
  5. The Kunhad, draining the area of Siribang and Dubran.

 

 

 

Kabul River

 
Kabul River flowing in JalalabadAfghanistan
Suspension bridge
Kabul River in Behsood Bridge Area, Jalalabad - 30 July 2009
Kabul River in Behsood Bridge Area, Jalalabad - 30 July 2009
Buddhist caves, which have been carved into a set of cliffs on the north side of the Kabul river

The Kabul River (Persian/Urduدریای کابل‎; Pashtoکابل سیند‎, Sanskrit: कुभं), the classical Cophes /ˈkfz/, is a 700 km long river that starts in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and ends in the Indus River near AttockPakistan. It is the main river in eastern Afghanistan and is separated from the watershed of the Helmand by the Unai Pass. The Kabul River passes through the cities of Kabul and Jalalabad in Afghanistan before flowing into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan some 25 km north of theDurand Line border crossing at Torkham. The major tributaries of the Kabul River are the LogarPanjshirKunarAlingarBara andSwat rivers.

The Kabul River is little more than a trickle for most of the year, but swells in summer due to melting snows in the Hindu Kush Range. Its largest tributary is the Kunar River, which starts out as the Mastuj River, flowing from the Chiantar glacier in Chitral, Pakistan and after flowing south into Afghanistan it is met by the Bashgal river flowing from Nurestan. The Kunar meets the Kabul near Jalalabad. In spite of the Kunar carrying more water than the Kabul, the river continues as the Kabul River after this confluence, mainly for the political and historical significance of the name.

The Kabul River is impounded by several dams. The NaghluSurobi, and Darunta dams are located in Kabul and Nangarhar provinces of Afghanistan. The Warsak Dam is in Pakistan, approximately 20 km northwest of the city of Peshawar.

History

Expedition of Alexander the Great into Asia

In Arrian's The Campaigns of Alexander, the River Kabul is referred to as Κωφήν Kōphēn (Latin spelling Cophen), the accusative of ΚωφήςKōphēs (Latin spelling Cophes).[1][2][3][4]

-Apr 329 - Cophen River (Kabul River, Afghanistan) ―Gandara-

In Sanskrit and Avesta

The word Kubhā (कुभं) which is the ancient name of the river is both a Sanskrit and Avestan word. Many of the rivers of Pakistan and Afghanistan are mentioned in the Rig Veda. The Sanskrit word later changed to Kābul.

The Kubha is the modern Kabul river which flows into the Indus a little above Attock and receives at Prang the joint flow of its tributaries the Swat (Swastu) and Gauri [5]
In the older parts of the Rigved the Indian people appear to be settled on the north western border of India, in the Punjaband even beyond the Punjab on the borders of the Kubha river the Kowpher in Kabul. The gradual diffusion of these people from this point towards the east, beyond the Saraswati and Hindustan as far as the Ganges, can be traced almost step by step in the later portions of the Vedic writings.[6]

Al Biruni

Biruni also called it "the River of Ghorwand".[7]

The Kabul River later gave its name to the region and eventually to the settlement of Kabul.[7]

References

  1. ^ Arrian, John Rooke; Arrian's History of the expedition of Alexander the Great: and conquest of Persia. J. Davis, 1813. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
  2. ^ Nigel Cawthorne; Alexander the Great. Haus Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-904341-56-X. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
  3. ^ Waldemar Heckel; The wars of Alexander the Great, 336-323 B.C. Taylor & Francis, 2003, ISBN 0-415-96855-0. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
  4. ^ Arrian, James S. Romm, Pamela Mensch; Alexander the Great: selections from Arrian, Diodorus, Plutarch, and Quintus Curtius. Hackett Publishing, 2005, ISBN 0-87220-727-7. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
  5. ^ The History and Culture of the Indian People : The Vedic age. By Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Achut Dattatrya Pusalker, A. K. Majumdar, Dilip Kumar Ghose, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Vishvanath Govind Dighe Published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1962 Page 247
  6. ^ Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India By John Muir page 352
  7. a b Bosworth, C.E. (1999). "Kabul". Encyclopaedia of Islam (CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0 ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV.

 

Swat River

Swat River, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan.

The Swat River (Pashtoد سوات سیند‎) is a river in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Its source is in the Hindukush Mountains, from where it flows through the Kalam Valley and Swat District. In then skirts Lower Dir District and flows through Malakand District to enter the Kabul River at Charsadda in the Peshawar valley.

The Swat River irrigates large areas of Swat District and contributes to the fishing industry of the region. Ayub Bridge is one of the attractions for visitors. The scenery attracts many tourists from all over Pakistan during the summer.

There are two main hydro-electric power projects on canals from the Swat River which generate electricity for local usage.

The Lower Swat Valley is rich in archaeological sites.

The Swat River is mentioned in Rig Veda 8.19.37 as the Suvastu river.[1] It is said[where?] that Alexander the Great crossed the Swat River with part of his army before turning south to subdue the locals at what are now Barikoot and Odegram.

It is also a place of origin of the Shrivastavas,(river Shrivastu) a sub clan of Kayastha, Indo-Aryan group.

References

  1. ^ Journal of Indian History by: University of Kerala Dept. of History, University of Allahabad Dept. of Modern Indian History, University of Travancore, University of Kerala, Published by Dept. of Modern Indian History, 1963 page 28

 

River Jindi

The River Jindi, also known as Kot and Manzari Baba, begins in the hills of Malakand Agency, in the northern district of Charsadda, in Khyber-PakhtunkhwaPakistan. During the early months of each year, the River Jindi has a very limited water supply, but the summer months bring with them much needed rain to water the area. As the river proceeds downstream, the local people use dams, similar to the Warsak Dam on the Kabul River, to take out water for irrigation; therefore, the amount of water flowing downstream decreases. The area surrounding the Kabul and Jindi rivers is one of the largest irrigated areas within Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.[1] This coupled with an exponentially growing population alludes to problems in the future. The River Jindi used to have enough water to sustain the surrounding area, but over the last few years, due the environmental changes including massivedroughts and rising global temperatures, the river does not. This, coupled with growing pollution of the water, is making the ability to acquire fresh clean water detrimental to the area and its surrounding population.

The river passes through other villages like Spankharo, Prang Ghar, Palay, and then through one of the tehsil of Charsadda Tangi, and it meets with the Swat River south of Charsadda.

References

  1. ^ Atlas of Pakistan, 1990

jendi is becoming a visiting center nowadays. There is a main bridge on this river at Jendi bazzar made during British rule on this area. There are also some fish centers on the bank of this river. The fish found in jendi river are of strange kinds therefore, jendi is a fish hunting center for the whole district of charsadda. Local people often come in the evening and enjoy the beautiful natural scenes.

 

Panjkora River

The Panjkora River (Sanskritगौरी) is a river in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northwestern Pakistan. It rises rises high in the Hindu Kush at lat. 35.45, flows south through Upper Dirand Lower Dir Districts and joins the Swat River near ChakdaraMalakandKhyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Archaeology

The Panjkora Valley contains important sites of the Gandhara grave culture.

The Talash Valley, 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) from Chakdara, is full of Buddhist remains. Buddhist stupas and monasteries which have not been excavated are on both sides of the road towards Dir. At the west end of the valley is the Kat Kala PassOlaf Caroe identified this place with Massaga which was captured by Alexander the Great in 327BC. There are also crumbling remains of a massive Hindu Shahi fort of the 8th to 10th centuries.

Timergara (or Timargarha), 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Chakdara is the site of excavated graves of Indo-Aryans, dating from 1500 to 600 BC.

On the west side of the Panjkora River is the excavated site of Balambat. The site has been occupied continuously since the time of the Aryans in 1500 BC. Houses dating from 500 BC have been discovered here. Fire altars were also discovered, evidence of fire worshippers.

 

Bara River

Bara River (Pashtoباړه سیند‎; Urduدریائے باڑہ ‎) is a river in Khyber Agency and Khyber PakhtunkhwaPakistan. The Bara River originates in the Tirah Valley of Bara Tehsil, Khyber Agency. It joins the Kabul River Canal which originates from the Warsak Dam, and enters Peshawar. Then it flows in the North-easterly direction to the Nowshera District, eventually joining the Kabul River near Camp Koruna, Akbarpura. Due to its higher elevation, very limited areas flow through gravity into Bara river.

 

Kunar River

Kunar River in the Bar Kashkot village, Kuz Kunar District, Nangarhar

The Kunar River (Pashto: کونړ سيند) is about 480 km long, located in eastern Afghanistan and north-western Pakistan. The Kunar river system is fed from melting glaciers and snow of the Hindu Kush mountains. It is part of the Indus / Sindh watershed. It was once called the Kama[1] river.

The river rises in the far north of Chitral District in Pakistan. Downstream as far as Mastuj it is known as the Yarkhun River. From there to its confluence with the Lutkho River just north of the important regional centre of Chitral it is called the Mastuj River.[2] It is then called the Chitral River, before flowing south into the upper Kunar Valley in Afghanistan, where it is referred to as the Kunar River and gives it's name to Kunar Province.

Babur, during his second Hindustan campaign, riding a raft in Kunar Riverback to Atar.

At the confluence of the Pech it meets Asadabad, historically Chaga Sarai, the gateway to old Kaffiristan to the west.

The Kunar River empties into the Kabul River just to the east of the city of Jalalabad in Afghanistan. The combined rivers then flow eastwards into Pakistan, roughly following the Grand Trunk Road through the Khyber Pass, and joining the Indus River at the city of Attock.

History

Before the political division of the area divided the Kunar/Chitral Valley between the modern nation states of Afghanistan and Pakistan, it had formed an important trade route, being the easiest way to travel from the Pamir Mountains' passes to the plains of the Indian subcontinent. While navigable in parts by expert kayakers, etc..., it is more precise to say its valley forms a trade route since, like nearly all of the rivers in Africa and Asia, it is not navigable for commerce or transport.

"At about six miles from Jellalabad, we quitted the valley of the Cabul river, and entered that of the Kama or Kooner river. I have not seen so fine a valley as this anywhere. The Kama is a large rapid stream, with about a mile of rich soil on either side, sometimes considerably more. The villages are large and well peopled." - Major - General Augustus Abbott, mid 19th century [1]

References

  1. a b The Afghan War, 1838-1842: From the Journal and Correspondence of the Late Major - General Augustus Abbott - with Charles Rathbone Low, Publisher R. Bentley and son, 1879, Google Books
  2. ^ Pakistan & the KarakoramLonely Planet. 2008. p. 233.

 

 

LUTHKHO RIVER
 
Lutkho River is a intermittent stream in North-West Frontier, Pakistan, Asia. Lutkho River is also known as Luikho
 What's around Lutkho River? 
 Wikipedia near Lutkho River
 Where to stay near Lutkho River
Populated Place;
a city, town, village, or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work.
 
 
 
Intermittent Stream;
a water course which dries up in the dry season.
Chitral - Cricket Game

by zerega
Stream;
a body of running water moving to a lower level in a channel on land.
Section Of Populated Place;
a neighborhood or part of a larger town or city.
Chitral Northern Area Pakistan

by Waheed Ashraf
Peak;
a pointed elevation atop a mountain, ridge, or other hypsographic feature.

Accommodation Around Lutkho River

TravelingLuck Hotels
Availability and bookings 


Chitral

 
Locality;
a minor area or place of unspecified or mixed character and indefinite boundaries.
On The Street In Chitral, PAKISTAN

by Andrej Paušič
Resthouse;
a structure maintained for the rest and shelter of travelers.
Chitral - Tirich Mir Vista

by zerega
Area;
a tract of land without homogeneous character or boundaries.
Casa En El Valle De Kalash, Kafiristan

by Miriam Cánovas
Hut;
a small primitive house.
On Chitral Street

 

Siran River

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The Siran river is originates from the Manda Gucha Glacier and merges into the Indus River. The Siran Valley has a lot of natural beauty. People of the valley are very calm and peaceful. Visitors and tourists are warmly welcomed here

Tangir River

 

Astore River

 

Astor River is a tributary of the Indus River and one of the rivers draining the Deosai Plateau, running through Astore Valley. The river originates from western slopes of Burzil Pass.[1]

Astor river joins Gilgit River at coordinates     34°00′N 74°41′E / 34.000°N 74.683°E / 34.000; 74.683.[2]

 

Footnotes
  1. ^ Sultana, K.; Muqarrab Shah, T.M.Upson (2007). "Altitudinal Distribution of Grasses, Sedges and Rushes of Deosai Plateau: Pakistan". The Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 6 (11): 2518. ISSN 1579-4377. Retrieved 2009-08-11.
  2. ^ GeoNames. "Astor River". Retrieved 2009-08-11.

Rupal River

The Rupal River is an east-west glacial stream rising from the meltwater of the Rupal Glacier in northern Pakistan. The stream flows through the Rupal Valley, south of Nanga Parbat, before

 

turning northeast to the village of Tarashing. The Rupal drains into the Astore River, which eventually reaches the Indus near Jaglot.

 

 

Gilgit River

Gilgit River (Urdu: دریائے گلگت‎) is a tributary of the Indus River, and flows past the town of Gilgit. It is located in the Northern Areas of Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan. The Gilgit starts from Shandur lake. The Gilgit River is also referred to as the Ghizar River.

Shandur is a place where an annual polo game is played between teams representing Chitral and Gilgit. Shandur is the route to Chitral from Gilgit in the Hindukush mountain range and has a height of about 12,000 ft (3,700 m).

 

 

 

Hunza River

Hunza River (Urdu: دریائے ہنزہ‎) is the principal river of Hunza, in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. It is formed by the confluence of the Kilik and Khunjerab nalas (gorges) which are fed by glaciers. It is joined by the Gilgit River and the Naltar River before it flows into the Indus River.

The river cuts through the Karakoram range, flowing from north to south. The Karakoram Highway crosses the Hunza River near Hunza and Nagar valleys.

The river is dammed for part of its route.[1]

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