Daily News
Hazrat Khwaja Ghulam Fareed URS celebration beginning .  -  Three-days Ceremonies Of URS Of The Famous Saint And Sufi Poet Of the South Punjab Hazrat Khwaja Ghulam Fareed will be Starting  From 6th February.KFF is The Host Of The Celebration Ceremony.  Diwan-e- Fareed new research, which the Author is Mr. Mujahid Jatoi are celebration ceremony will be held on February 7th in Qaser-e-Fareed. KFF is the  host of the celebration ceremony. The Delegation Of Khwaja Farid College Rahim Yar Khan, Visit The Kot Mithan. A Delegation Of The Professors And Lecturers In The Leadership Of Mr. Chaudhry Mohammad Akram Principal Khwaja Fareed College Rahim Yar Khan Visited The Kot Mithan. After Darbar –e-Fareed Thay Also Visit The Khawaja Fareed Museum And Then They Attended a Ceremony Arranged by KFF, in Qaser-e-Fareed.  

KOT Mithan


(Research & Written in Urdu by: Prof. Dr. Shakil Pitafi)

(Translated into English by: Prof. Arshad Bukhari)

1: Nahrr Lodhi Rule:

At the time of the establishment of old Kot Mithan city in 1713, the Mughals graced the throne of Delhi, whereas the state of Seet Pur was under occupation of Nahrr Lodhi dynasty. This State had come into existence after the throne of Delhi was occupied by Bahlol Lodhi. The Nahr rulers had been ruling over the State since 1445. The State of Seet Pur spread from Uch to Kashmore. Kot Mithan also emerged from the lap of this State. Initially, a road was built which connected Seet Pur to Kashmore.     The road was built with a view to administering the affairs of the State as well as interconnecting all the cities and towns present in the State. The newly built road went along the banks of the Indus. It was along the brink of this road that the tiny city of Kot Mithan (old) originated in 1713. In those days, the Indus flowed in the east of Seet Pur which accounts for the considerably short distance between Seet Pur to Kot Mithan. The thoroughfare contributed to the rapid inhabiting by various people in Kot Mithan. At that time, the Nahrr dynasty had started experiencing a downward slide thanks to the utter lack of interest in state affairs as well as internecine rifts. Finally, the State was partitioned amongst Tahir Khan, Islam Khan and Qasim Khan--- the three sons of Mohammad Khan Nahrr[1]. Seet Pur fell to the share of Tahir Khan; Bhagsar went to Islam Khan and Kin as well as Kashmore was given to Qasim Khan. Islam Khan’s share of the State, i. e. Bhagsar also included Kot Mithan and Rojhan. Islam Khan occasionally came to sojourn here. He was so simple and artless a fellow that he had earned the epithet of “Bhola Badshah”[2](=the simpleton ruler). Once on a cold winter night, the jackals from across the woods approached the outskirts of Bhagsar and started howling. Islam Khan inquired in a surprising tone: “Why, on earth, are the jackals howling?” One of his retinue replied: “The jackals are asking for warm clothing and quilts to keep them from intense cold.” Upon this, Islam Khan handed over a lot of money to the retinue so that the need of the jackals might be fulfilled! The second night, the jackals started yelling again. Islam Khan wondered why the jackals were howling that night. When he asked from the retinue, the latter replied: “Sir, these jackals have come tonight to express their thanks to you.” Islam Khan was awfully delighted when he heard this[3]. Kashfi Multani has endeavoured to narrate this anecdote in verse like this[4]:

“They say that on a really cold night,

When the nip-hit seem’d every sight;

There came a sudden hue and cry

(From jackals it came and went up to sky);

The King happened to hear the yells

Felt so uneasy at the devilish bells;

“Why do they scream so high?” said he,

“Who will reveal the secret to me?”

A courtier there was, fam’d for his wit,

Replied he thus, after thinking a bit:

“So down with cold are the jackals, Sir!

Praying for quilts or coats made of fur.”

The prayers granted promptly by the king

He kept on hearing the loud howling;

“Minister, why are the devils yelling still,”

Asked the king, “though protected from chill?”

“No, not yelling, my lord,” quoth he,

“Singing are they in gratitude of thee!”

There was no worthwhile development work done in Kot Mithan in the reign of the Nahrs. Islam Khan had had dug just a water course in Bhagsar commonly known as “Nala-e-Bhagsari” and which irrigated some of the areas of Bhagsar, Bangala and Sabzani. The water channel originated from the mouth of the Indus[5].

In short, the lack of interest in the affairs of the state on the part of the Nahrr rulers resulted in the gradual emasculating of the State and soon the Nahrr rule was wiped out from the area6[6].

2:Makhadeem (Masters)of Seet Pur and Wa’alian (Governors)of Khurasan and Kabul:

When the Nahr Lodhi rule lost its grip on Seet Pur and its adjuncts, Makhdoom Sheikh Rajan who was an inhabitant of Seet Pur as well as its governor appointed by the Nahrs, occupied some of the territories. He was succeeded by his son Sheikh Mohammad Raju (Rajan Shah). It was the period when Nadir Shah Durrani, the governor of Khurasan, had invaded India. Sheikh Mohammad Raju (Rajan Shah) had, in the meanwhile, gathered a strong influence in his area. He had also accumulated considerable money. On account of his influence and personal ability, he had had the rule of Seet Pur granted to him by Nadir Shah. In this way, he evicted the Nahrs from there for good.

In 1730, Makhdoom Rajan obtained complete dominance over the areas of Alipur, Kotla Mughlan, Bhagsar, Kot Mithan and Umar Kot and established his rule there. He founded Rajan Pur city in 1732. In those days, D. G. Khan was considered to be a separate state ruled by the Mirani tribe. Though Nadir Shah failed to capture the throne of Delhi, he had gained influence on some of the states included in Mughal rule. Seet Pur and some states of D. G. Khan were also among the areas which remained under subjugation of the governor of Khurasan for a long time. At the local level, however, Seet Pur was administered by Makhadeem and D .G. Khan by the Gojar rulers. For the important decisions, they had recourse to the governor of Khurasan.

Makhadeem of Seet Pur accomplished various developments projects in their territories over different periods of time. The digging of Nullahs or artificial channels of water is the most important of all. Seeking permission from the governor of Khurasan, they had the following water channels dug: “Nala Dhundi, Nala Qutab, Nala Baheshti, and Rasool Wah”. These water channels not only contributed to the development of crops in these areas, but also attracted many people who established several villages along these water channels, e.g. Dunya Pur, Kotla Jinda, Shah Pur, Ghous Pur, Rasool Pur, Kotla Gayan, Kotla Ahmad, Muhammad Pur, Kotla Babul, Sultan Pur, Bati Lashari, Kotla Daleel, Thal Baqir, etc.

The digging of Nala Qadirah was also launched in that period. The following villages/towns cropped up along side this Nullah: Kotla Naseer, Kotla Noor Mohammad, Kotla Sayed Khan, Dhago, Basti Phali, Bhag, Murghai, Qadirah, Kotal Hassan Shah, Kotla Hassan Jamra and Kotla Gulam Murtaza. Nala Hamid and Nala Pahar were the offshoots of the Nala Qadirah.

Nadir Shah died in 1747 and was succeeded by Ahmad Shah Abdali. He prepared his army and launched several attacks on the Punjab on different occasions. He succeeded in occupying Lahore and Multan. In his reign, too, Seet Pur and states of D. G. Khan remained annexed to Kabul. Ahmad Shah Abdali breathed his last in 1773. His son Timur Shah ascended to the throne of Kabul. Timur Shah also continued providing opportunities to the Makhadeem of Seet Pur for the settlement of the areas. The water tax, however, was strictly imposed.

In those days, Qazi Noor Mohammad, the elder brother of Qazi Aqil Mohammad Koreja, had a great thirst for the irrigation of lands. Unfortunately, at that time there was no water channel available which could convert the barren lands of Kot Mithan worth tilling. With the help of Makhdoom sahb, he obtained a lease from Timur Shah and had a water channel dug from the Indus. This became famous as “Qazi Wah”. This water channel was extracted from the north eastern side of Mauza Wang from the Indus. It irrigated the areas of Mauza Wang, Basti Mohib Ali, Kotla Hussain, Kot Mithan (old), and as far as Rakh Qadirah. As ill luck would have it, Qazi Noor Mohammad suffered a great loss in this lease. The amount fixed for the lease/contract could not be submitted to the treasury of Timur Shah and, consequently, Qazi Noor Mohammad was sent to jail[7]. At that time, Juma Khan was the Nazim (Mayor) of D. G. Khan on behalf of the government of Khurasan. Qazi Aqil Mohammad, the brother of Qazi Noor Mohammad, was a guarantor to the lease/contract. Juma Khan, therefore, sent Qazi Aqil Mohammad to jail, too[8]. This event has also been recorded in “Manaqib-e-Mehboobeen”.

When Hafiz Mohammad Jamal Multani[9] came to know of the arrests of Qazi Noor Mohammad and Qazi Aqil Mohammad, he contacted Jumma Khan and recommended for the release of Qazi brothers. Jumma Khan, however, did not respond to the request in the positive. Upon this, Hafiz Jamal cursed him. As a result of this curse, Jumma Khan suffered from acute stomach pain and at once released Qazi brothers. Jumma Khan, however, did not recover and ultimately died of the stomach pain.

After his release, Qazi Noor Mohammad washed his hands of the lease of Qazi Wah. The water channel soon dried up and wore a deserted look. Swelling torrents of the flood occasionally inundated it, otherwise it remained dry throughout the year[10].

In 1790, the Indus changed route and Seet Pur now found itself on the eastern bank of the river. This brought about an end of contact on the part of the Makhadeem of Seet Pur with Kot Mithan. With the change of route of the Indus, the Nawab of Bahawalpur state easily grabbed form the Makhadeem the areas such as Ali Pur, Shehr Sultan, and Kher Pur Sadaat[11]. Only Uch Sharif was left with the Sadaat of Seet Pur. Even this territory was snatched from them by the Sikhs in 1816. In this way, the rule of Makhadeem of Seet Pur was put to an end[12]…………………………………  

Timur Shah died in 1793 and was succeeded by his son Zaman Shah. Zaman Shah had a craze to conquer the Punjab. In 1798, he launched two consecutive attacks on Lahore and conquered it. On his way back from Lahore, Zaman Shah had had his heavy cannons stuck in the Jhelum. Ranjit Singh rendered him great help in extricating the cannons out of the river. In gratitude for this help, Zaman Shah handed over the control of Lahore to Ranjit Singh. In this way, the Sikhs’ long cherished dream of ruling over the Punjab ultimately materialized! They had been striving to this end ever since the times of Ahmad Shah Abdali and had several times occupied the territories conquered by Ahmad Shah.[13]

After occupying Lahore in 1799, Ranjit Singh annexed Kasoor, Hoshiarpur, Sahiwal, Multan and in 1819, D. G. Khan. After taking control of D. G. Khan, he gave the area on lease to the Nawab of Bahawalpur @Rs:300,000/= per annum[14]. This lease lasted till 1830.

Shah Shuja, the brother of Zaman Shah, had been occupying the throne of Kabul since 1803. He was also in possession of the areas including Kot Mithan situated along both banks of the Indus. Ranjit Singh somehow wanted to grab all these areas from Shah Shuja. In 1813, Shah Shuja’s brother Mahmood Shah aided by his nephew Kamran Shah defeated Shah Shuja and snatched from him the rule of Kabul. However, the areas on both sides of the Indus still remained under control of Shah Shuja. Ranjit Singh was just waiting for the opportune moment to annex these areas. In 1832, when Shah Shuja conquered Shikar Pur (Sindh) and reached Qandahar, he was badly defeated by Amir Dost Mohammad Khan. The rule of Kabul had already been slipped from his hands. Following his defeat in Qandahar, Shah Shuja proceeded to the Indian subcontinent and resided in Ludhyana where he was cunningly deceived by Ranjit Singh. Ranjit Singh not only extracted Koh-i-Noor diamond from him but, consequent upon a written agreement in March 1833, also grabbed the occupied territories (including Kot Mithan) of the Indus. Thus ended for good the dominance of the descendents of Ahmad Shah Abdali over this area. The aforementioned agreement was effected in black and white n March 1833 and both Shah Shuja and Ranjit Singh signed it. Section 1 of the said agreement may give an ample glimpse of the nature of the agreement as well as the details of the areas thus consigned to Ranjit Singh:

(Translation): “Shah Shuj-ul-Mulk, on behalf of himself, his heirs, his successors and all Sadozais, relinquishes the control of all those areas in favour of the Maharaja (who will be in possession of those areas hereinafter) which are situated along both sides of the Indus. Thus areas include Kashmir, Attock fort, Chhach, Hazara, Kabul, Umb and its dependent areas i.e. Peshawar, areas inhabited by Yusuzais, Khattak, Hasht Nagar, Kohat, Hangu, and all the areas which are dependent on Peshawar such as Khyber Pass, Bannu and Wazir regions. Moreover, Tonk, Gurang, Kalabagh, Khushhal Garh, Dera Isamil Khan, and dependent areas i.e. Sanghar, Harand, Dajal, Hajipur, Rajanpur, Kot Mithan, Umar Kot, Kachi with Mankeera and district and province Multan on the left bank---- all these areas and cities will be regarded as the property and possession of the Maharaja, and Shah Shuja has henceforth nothing to do with these areas which now belong to the Maharaja in saccula sacculorum[15].

3: The Sikh Rule:

In accordance with the agreement mentioned above, the Sikhs took possession of Kot Mithan along with other areas of the Indus in March 1833, and it was included in the governorship of Multan, Deewan Sawan Mal being the governor. The Sikh rule brought in its wake lawlessness, chaos and insecurity for the people of Kot Mithan. There were two main reasons behind this chaos. Firstly, after conquering Kot Mithan, the Sikh rulers were anxious to extend their rule up to Sindh. The major obstacle on the way were the Mazaris of Rojhan who were famous in the area as warriors. Deewan Sawan Mal, the governor, did not like the individual identity of the Mazaris as warriors. To combat the Mazaris, heavy troops were stationed in Kot Mithan by the Deewan. At the same time, Kot Mithan was granted the status of a district and was included in the districts of Dera Fateh Khan[16]. It increased the importance of Kot Mithan. The stationing of the troops, however, added an element of fear to the peaceful environment of the city. Fro the first time in its history, Kot Mithan was a garrison town. The Sikh rulers wanted either to subdue or to crush the Mazaris to make swift advance to Sindh. In 1839, Deewan Sawan Mal, with a legion of seven thousand soldiers attached the Mazaris. At Badli, a place near Rojhan, there started a fierce battle between the Sikhs and the Mazaris. Many died on both sides. Finally, the Mazaris had to retreat before the cannons. The Sikhs snatched their live stock and drove the Mazaris to the mountains. After this victory, the Sikhs were busy preparing an invasion on Sindh when the Mazaris launched a nocturnal attack on Kot Mithan and defeated the Sikh army which was confined to the fort, and looted the city[17]. In retaliation to this nocturnal attack, Ranjit Singh sent a reinforcement of six thousand soldiers armed with latest weapons and cannons and commanded by an Italian general Ventura in order to put down the Mazaris. When the Mazaris got wind of the arrival of the fresh legion of the Sikh army, they left Kot Mithan and headed towards Rojhan in a bid to reinforce them. But Ventura advance swiftly and encircled the Mazaris at Umar Kot, 15 miles off Kot Mithan. After a fierce battle, the unarmed Mazaris had to retreat to Rojhan where following another bloody battle the Mazaris had to flee towards the mountains. To wreak their vengeance, the Sikhs set the entire city ablaze and also indulged in a massacre[18].

After this victory, the Sikh armies grouped at Kot Mithan, refreshed themselves and advanced towards Sindh. The Sikhs were cocksure that Mazaris would have no guts to engage in another battle after defeats at Umar Kot and Rojhan. But when they were on their way to Sindh, the Sikhs were assaulted by the Mazaris at the place of Kin. The Mazaris fought fearlessly, but they were again rendered helpless in front of the cannons. After this, the Mazaris under the command of Mir Dost Ali and Mir Bahram Khan Mazari decided to wage a guerilla war against the Sikhs. Though the Mazaris had to sustain heavy loss in terms of human lives, the incessant battles also broke the back of the Sikhs. Deewan Sawan Mal had been killed in one of the skirmishes and the Sikh army was no more in a position to try to secure control of Sindh. To quote Wakil Anjum, “In the battles with the Mazaris, the Sikh armies which had proceeded on a mission to conquer Shikar Pur were completely ruined and Ranjit Singh’s dream of extended his arms to the Sea did not materialize[19].” The battles between the Sikhs and the Mazaris caused disruption to the peaceful atmosphere of Kot Mithan.

The second reason for this chaos and lawlessness was that the anti-Islam activities on the part of the Sikhs had been increasing with every passing day. It had already become a national perception and Tehrik-i-Mujahidin had already come into action in order to suppress these anti-Islam activities of the “Sikha Shahi” (=the Sikh rule)[20]. Persecuting Muslim Ulema (=scholars) and religious leaders was one of the anti-Islam activities of the Sikhs. When the Sikhs occupied Kot Mithan, Khawaja Khuda Bakhsh, (the father of Hazrat Khawaja Ghulam Farid) was adoring the throne of Khilafat inherited by his grandfather Qazi Aqil Mohammad. He was considered to be an important pillar of the Chishtiya dynasty. He had equally conquered the hearts of the people of Kot Mithan by virtue of his piety and an ascetic life. When the Sikhs discovered the elevated status enjoyed by Khawaja Khuda Bakhsh, they exerted undue pressure on him to capitulate to the Sikh rule. They knew well that this would mean the surrender of all the people of the city. When Khawaja Khuda Bakhsh refused to yield, the Sikhs embarked on a campaign of persecuting him so much so that he found it hard even to perform the fundamentals of Islam[21]. He therefore decided to migrate. He accepted the invitation extended by the Nawab of Bahawalpur and settled in Chachran Sharif. The inhabitants of Kot Mithan were highly aggrieved at the persecution of Khawaja Khuda Bakhsh by the Sikhs. They, in fact, lived through the period of the Sikh rule suffering excruciating agony.

After the death of Deewan Sawan Mal in 1844, his son Molraj succeeded him as the governor of Multan. At the time of his father’s death, his governorship extended to the Suleman ranges in the west, Cheecha Watni in the east, and the border of Sindh in the south, whereas Lahore and most of the areas of the Punjab were under the exclusive control of the British. Molraj was a recalcitrant and absolute governor. Though the Sikhs were ruling under the umbrella of the British, the latter did not at all like the despotism of Molraj. The English, therefore, appointed Sardar Kahan Singh to take over of Multan from Molraj. The two English advisors, Van Agno and Anderson, also accompanied Kahan Singh. During the handing over of the control of Multan, Molraj lost temper over a trifling and attacked the English advisors who sustained great injuries. Moreover, Molraj also captured Kahan Singh. This incident enraged the British and they determined to teach Molraj a good lesson for his defiance.   

On his part, Molraj consulted on local level with the Muslims, the Hindus and the Sikhs and, on April 20, 1848 declared war on the British. The British recruited heavily from Multan, Dera Ismail Khan and D. G. Khan and brought the army thus recruited to against the Sikhs. In this war between the Sikhs and the British, the Nawab of Bahawalpur overtly sided with the British. At length, Molraj had no way but to surrender. Thus, the Sikh rule in these areas was permanently put to an end by the English in 1849. The English occupied the whole of the Punjab. During the rule of Ranjit Singh, the monthly salaries of Sikh soldiers and other employees stationed in Kot Mithan were as under[22]:

Serial No:


Initial Pay

Maximum Pay






Jamadar (Minor Military Officer)




Hawaldar (Sergeant)




Naik (Corporal)




Sarjan (Sergeant)




Sipahi (Constable)

Rs: 7/=



Mistri (Mason/Skilled Worker)




Beldar (Digger)


Rs: 6/=


Sarban (Camel-driver)




Saqqah (Water-carrier)




Gharyali (Gong-striker)




Langri (Meal-distributer)




Khlasi (Trolley-driver)



On the whole, the Sikh rule in Kot Mithan as anywhere else generated lawlessness and restlessness and anarchy reigned supreme everywhere. In the words of John Strachey: “During the Sikh rule there was no written law. The justice was crude and rough. The rights of private property, lands, the land owner and the tenant and of village council were acknowledged. Local rulers imposed their individual writ.”[23]

4:The British Rule:

Molraj, the Sikh ruler of Multan, had declared war on the British in 1848 in the vain hope that the people of Multan and D .G. Khan over whom he had been ruling for so long would stand by his side. The situation on the ground was otherwise. The people were fed up with the oppressive measure so often resorted to by the Sikhs and inwardly nourished an immense hatred against them. Consequently, people exhibited little interest when announcements were made and leaflets pasted by the supports of Molraj urging the inhabitants of Multan and D. G. Khan to stand up against the British[24]. On the contrary, the English reaped benefit from the grudge of the local people against the Sikhs. In this regard, Sir John Strachey writes: “Unless we take cognizance of how we happened to own the vast Indian subcontinent and how the handful of Englishmen continued their control over it, we will not get to the bottom of the matter. In the words of Prof. Nestle, it was an internal revolution of which the English just took lead and it was mainly brought about by the inhabitants of India.[25]

Thus, like the people of other areas under Sikh rule, the people of Kot Mithan were waiting for the appropriate time to give vent to their hatred against the Sikhs. In 1848, when the battle was going on between the British and the Sikhs, some of the war equipment was being transported to Ferozpur via the Indus, the Sikh Kardar (officer in charge) confiscated the equipment and dispatched it to Molraj. A little distance away, one of the landowners of Kot Mithan assaulted and snatched all the shipment and sent it to the English rulers[26]. This shows that at that time the people of Kot Mithan had a grudge against the Sikhs as well as a soft corner for the British. This soft corner was simply the reaction against the oppressive rule of the Sikhs. To quote Major Edwards, “Some of the landowners of Kot Mithan wrote to me that they were ready to rebel against the Sikhs and to expel the Sikh Kardar appointed in Kot Mithan by Molraj. The Kardar has not only rallied the support of three to four hundred men, he is also collecting land revenue. I wrote back to the landowners to stand up against him and also prevent his escape from the city.[27]

This rebellion against the Sikhs by the people not only of Kot Mithan but of all the other areas under Sikh dominance definitely contributed to the ultimate surrender by Molraj. And in 1848 all these areas came under the control of the British bringing in its wake satisfaction and peace for the people[28].

During the English rule, Kot Mithan was granted the status of a Tehsil in 1853. Twelve English Assistant Commissioners served in this Teshil from time to time[29]. After the flood of 1862, Tehsil headquarter was shifted from Kot Mithan to Rajanpur. To rehabilitate the survivors of the flood, the present city of Kot Mithan was founded under the supervision of the English in 1865. In 1875, the police station of Kot Mithan was set up. In 1876, Boys Primary School was inaugurated. In the meanwhile, a post office had also been set up in the city. In 1887, Kot Mithan was declared a Municipal Committee which ushered in the local bodies system in the city. Under the supervision of the British, three settlements of lands were completed in 1872, 1897 and 1917. In 1926, Boys Middle School was set up in Kot Mithan and at the start of 1947, Girls Primary School was also built.

In short, 100-year rule of the British was rather better than that of the Sikhs. But the reaction by the people of Kot Mithan against the English was synonymous with that of the prominent leaders of Pakistan Movement. The Hindus and the Muslims were equal in number in Kot Mithan, and they had therefore equal representation in the Municipal Committee. This also accounts for the peaceful co-existence of the two communities and an absence of Hindu-Muslim disturbances in the city though the political differences were there. When Pakistan came into existence on August 14, 1947, the people of Kot Mithan were not only delivered of the English rule but they also got rid of the Hindus.

5: Post-Independence Era:

There is no doubt that the effects of the struggle for Pakistan launched by the leading Muslim politicians could also be felt in the far-flung area of Kot Mithan. By raising the slogan of Two-Nation Theory, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan had made the English realize that the Hindus and the Muslims could no longer live together. And it was probably for this reason that Sir Syed Ahmad had dissuaded the Muslims from joining the Indian National Congress. This political organization was founded by the English and its scope had extended to all the people living in India. Sir Syed Ahmad, however, knew well the pro-Hindu policy of the English. He soon sized up the situation and came to the conclusion that every policy adopted by the English was tantamount to safeguarding the interests of the Hindus. The Muslims of India were unwilling to live with the Hindus. They also abhorred the British imperialism. This hatred against the British was demonstrated by all those aspired to have a separate independent and sovereign state for the Muslims of India. In this regard, Khawaja Ghulam Farid (R.A.) said:

(Translation): “Rule thy country thyself,

                        Get rid of the English rule.”

Apart from Saraiki, he also composed some Urdu verses which are expressive of his wish to overthrow the yoke of English slavery and to attain absolute sovereignty. Look at the following verses:[30]


“’Tis spring, can the Captor turn it to autumn?

For God’s sake, grant me freedom from bondage;

I feel no lust for fragrance of various flowers,

What I long for is the glimpse of my bowers!”

Khawaja Ghulam Farid was hailed as a poet par excellence of his age and was also regarded a profound religious scholar. He devotees had firm belief in his ideas and perceptions. It can therefore be claimed that the people of Kot Mithan shared Khawaja Farid’s hatred against the British imperialism. The anti-imperial sentiment encountered in his poetry, in fact, reflects the ideas and perceptions of the people of Kot Mithan. It is thus an established fact that the people of Kot Mithan must have played a tangible role in the efforts for the establishment of Pakistan. In this regard, the services rendered by Syed Ghulam Ali Shah, Khawaja Ahmad Yar, Mian Ahmad Bakhsh Khoja, Haji Rasool Bakhsh Sadra, Sardar Khawaja Bakhsh Khan Pitafi and Sardar Khuda Yar Khan Pitafi are remarkable. These personalities played an ideal role in favour of the Pakistan Movement. At the time of the establishment of Pakistan, Mian Faiz Ahmad Khoja, the President of the Muslim League (Kot Mithan wing) arranged a celebration of Independence in which the people belonging to all the school of thoughts participated with nationalistic fervor.

The greatest blessing for the people of Kot Mithan after the independence was the migration of the Hindus which rendered the city a purely Muslim city. Moreover, the post-independence Kot Mithan witnessed the successful completion of development projects on an unprecedented scale. Nishtar Ghat, railway line, schools, hospital, banks, water and power, telephone, roads etc. were some of the gifts which Kot Mithan received from time to time by successive Pakistani governments. Millions of rupees in the shape of MNAs/MPAs grants have also been expended on this small town. It till continues. The granting of district status to Rajanpur in July 1982 is also a matter of honour for the people of Kot Mithan.

May our beloved homeland live and thrive for ever! (AMEEN!)

[1]: “(Tareekh-e-Muzaffar Garh”  (p.54) by Sajjad Haider Pervez)


[2] : “Muraqa Dera Ghazi Khan” (p.90) by Ghulam Ali Nutkani

[3] : “Gul Bahar” (p.6) by Roy Hatto Ram

[4] : “Weekly Basharat” Muzaffar Garh, “Manzoom Qissa” by Kashfi Multani

[5] : “Gul Bahar” (p.102) by Roy Hatto Ram

[6] : “Gazetteer of Bahawalpur State: 1904” (p.416)

[7] : “Muraqa Dera Ghazi Khan” (p.152) by Ghulam Ali Nutkani


[8] : “Manaqib-i-Faridi” (p.53) by Mirza Ahmad Akhtar

[9] : Hafiz Mohammad Jamal Multani was a fellow-disciple of Qazi Aqil Mohammad. Both were the favourite disciples/devotees of Hazrat Noor Mohammad Maharvi

[10] : This water channel is drawn in the map of Kot Mithan (new) and was until recently quite visible.

[11] : “Tawareekh-e-Dera Ghazi Khan” (pp.36-37) by Munshi Hukam Chand

[12]: “Tareekh-e-Punjab” (p.132) by Syed Mitr Lateef

[13] : “Ahmad Shah Durrani” (p.165) by Syed Naseer Ahmad Ja’mai

[14] : “Tareekh-e-Dera Ghazi Khan” (Part-I) (p.236) by Abdul Qadir Leghari

[15] : “History of the Sikhs” (p.195) by I. D. Cunningham

[16] : “Tareekh-e-Dera Ghazi Khan” (Part-I) (p.285) by Abdul Qadir Leghari

[17] : “Tareekh-e-Balochian” (p.47) by Ghulam Rasool Korai

[18] : “Gul Bahar” (p.213) by Roy Hatto Ram

[19] : “Siasat k Far’oon” (p.112) by Wakil Anjum

[20] : “Sarguzasht-e-Mujahidin” (p.178) by Ghulam Rasool Mehr

[21] : “Auliya-e-Bahawalpur” (p.135) by Masood Hassan Shahab

[22] : “Tareekh-e-Dera Ghazi Khan” (Part-I) (p.303) by Abdul Qadir Leghari

[23]: “India: its Administration and Progress” (p.136) by Sir John Strachey

[24] : “Tareekh-e-Dera Ghazi Khan” (Part-I) (p.319) by Abdul Qadir Leghari

[25] : “India: its Administration and Progress” (p.5) by Sir John Strachey

[26] : “Tareekh-e-Dera Ghazi Khan” (Part-I) (p.323) by Abdul Qadir Leghari

[27] : “Political Diaries of H. B. Edwards” (p.120)

[28] : “Gul Bahar” (p.14) by Roy Hatto Ram

[29] : Ibid

[30] : “Kalaam-e-Khawaja Farid” edited by Siddiq Tahir (p.83)